A situation in which the total reward a miner should receive per block is halved.
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T uring completeness refers to a machine's ability to do all possible programmable calculations. It is a data manipulation system that can read programming languages and complex databases utilising a small collection of data, most commonly the Turing machine.
This is a system of distributing trust among different actors in a system via an economic game that incentivizes participants in the system to cooperate with the rules defined by the protocol. The Bitcoin blockchain is an example.