Glossary

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51% Attack (Majority Attack): T his occurs when an individual or group of persons successfully takes control of more than half of the hashing power. The group or person may abuse that power to verify invalid transactions or deny valid transactions.

51% Attack Protection: A protection mechanism implemented by cryptocurrencies to protect against 51% attacks. Some cryptocurrencies require at least 66% hash power to validate a transaction.

Aa

Address: An address is similar to a traditional bank account. It is a unique destination through which crypto users can send and receive digital currencies. It usually consists of alphanumeric keys.

Address Delegation: A person rather than holding some crypto tokens idly in a wallet entrusts it to a staker so it can be used to validate transactions.

AFK: An acronym for “Away From Keyboard”. It is used on social media platforms like Twitter where people share their trading activity to notify users that they would be away for some time.

Algorithms: A set of rules embedded into a computer software to enable it to perform specific functions.

All Time High (ATH): The highest price ever attained by a cryptocurrency

All Time Low (ATL): The lowest price ever attained by a cryptocurrency

Alphanumeric: This consists of both alphabets and numbers.

Altcoin: Any crypto that is not Bitcoin. These are other coins that were created after bitcoin with the aim of offering better features.

Airdrop: The distribution of a cryptocurrency or token to a community, with the aim of increasing the popularity of the coin or token. It is mainly used as a marketing scheme and usually requires users to complete a task like downloading an app or referring friends.

Air Gapping: A security mechanism employed to ensure that a computer is isolated from unsecured networks to prevent hacking attacks.

AMA: A n acronym for “Ask Me Anything” sessions held by crypto experts for users to ask questions and learn more about the crypto space.

Anti-Money Laundering (AML): A set of international laws set to prevent and punish money laundering crimes through fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies.

API: An acronym for “Application Programming Interface”, refers to a piece of code that allows applications to share information.

Arbitrage: Taking advantage of price differences of the same currency, security, or commodity in two or more markets. For example, crypto prices on African exchanges can be different from US exchanges. An arbitrage trader would buy in one market and sell in the other for a profit.

Ashdraked: The total loss of a trader’s investment or capital resulting often from shorting of bitcoin.

ASIC: This stands for “Application Specific Integrated Circuit”, which is designed for a specific purpose like mining.

ASIC Resistant: ASIC resistant refers to cryptocurrencies designed to prevent users from mining with ASIC.

Ask Price – The lowest price in which a seller is willing to accept for the sale of an asset.

Atomic Swap: A direct exchange of one type of cryptocurrency for another on a different blockchain or off-chain, without centralized exchange as an intermediary. 

Automated Market Maker (AMM): I t is an automated system that manages and provides liquidity to validators in a liquid pool.

Automatic Replay Protection: A protective mechanism implemented by Bitcoin Cash Developers to protect against replay attacks. A replay attack is when hackers intercept sensitive information and manipulate the information to steal funds.

Bb

Bag: A crypto slang used to refer to large quantities of cryptocurrencies in a trader’s portfolio

Bagholder: A crypto slang used to refer to an investor who continuously holds large quantities of cryptocurrencies regardless of their performance or price changes.

Batch Auction: T his refers to the accumulation of individual orders, which are grouped together and executed simultaneously.

Bear: A person who expects the market to decline.

Bearish: When the sentiments surrounding a cryptocurrency predict a price drop, it is said to be bearish.

Bear Market: This occurs when there is a prolonged decrease in the value of a cryptocurrency or asset. 

Bear Trap: A trick played by crypto traders to manipulate the price of an asset so that it seems there is a price decline in order to make more profit.

BearWhale: A person who holds a large quantity of cryptocurrencies and uses that power to drive down the price of cryptocurrencies to make more profit.

Bid-Ask Spread: This refers to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay for an asset and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for the sale of that asset.

BIP (Bitcoin Improvement Proposals): A design document for introducing new features to Bitcoin

Bitcoin: Bitcoin is the world's first peer to peer decentralized digital currency created in 2009 by an unknown person or group of persons known as Satoshi Nakamoto, it's also called a cryptocurrency for its use of cryptography to secure the network and make transactions pseudonymous, with bitcoin you don’t need to go through a bank, clearinghouse or third party of any kind use money.

Bitcoin ATM: Similar to the idea of a tradition ATM, but you can withdraw Bitcoin. Usually, Bitcoin ATMs have high fees for their convenience.

Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency forked from Bitcoin. Bitcoin Cash offers a larger block size, which allows miners to process more transactions per block.

Bitcoin Evangelist: Refers to a person who is passionate about bitcoin and is dedicated to spreading knowledge about bitcoin.

Bitcoin Maximalist: R efers to a person who believes bitcoin is superior to other digital coins and it is the only cryptocurrency needed. 

BitLicense: A business license issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services to firms in crypto-related activities.

Bits: A subunit of one Bitcoin. 1,000,000 bits make up one Bitcoin.

Block: T his is a single digital record created within a blockchain. Each block is a continuation of the previous block, carrying all the transactions earlier recorded, and when linked together these become a chain of blocks filled with information, blockchain.

Blockchain: This is a string of ongoing digital records created within a distributed network. Each block is a continuation of the previous block, carrying all the transactions earlier recorded, and when linked together these become a chain of blocks filled with information, blockchain.

Block Confirmation: This refers to adding a transaction to a block of transactions for verification.

Block explorer: A n online tool used to view transactions that have taken place on the blockchain. It provides detailed information on blocks, addresses, and transactions.

Block Height: It refers to a block’s location in the blockchain, it is measured by how many blocks preceded it. For instance, a block with Height 0 represents the first block added to the blockchain. 

Block Reward: When a bitcoin miner finds a block he receives newly minted bitcoins known as the block reward. The reward is halved every four years and is responsible for controlling bitcoin’s supply.

Block Size Limit: This refers to the maximum number of data (transactions) that may be included in a block. 

Bloodbath: A market condition in which assets are on a consistent price decline.

Bollinger bands: A technical analysis indicator used by traders to measure price variations or volatility. 

Bots: Refers to trading bots that allow traders to automate buying and selling cryptocurrencies. 

Bounty: A reward given to users for performing certain tasks or actions in the crypto space.

BTD: An acronym for “Buy The Dip”, a slang used to convince people to buy digital tokens when the prices have declined.  BTFD (Buy the F**king Dip): An unsavoury slang used to convince people to buy a cryptocurrency when it dips.

Bubble: A bubble is when the price of an asset, such as housing, stocks, ​gold, or cryptocurrencies become over-inflated. Prices rise quickly over a short period. It's a bubble when investors bid up the price beyond any real sustainable value.

Bug: A n error, flaw or fault in a software program that prevents it from functioning accurately.

Bug bounty: A reward for finding an issue or vulnerability in a program's code. Crypto companies offer these rewards to help find exploits in their protocols, exchanges, and wallets.

Bug Exploit: An attack that allows bugs to take control of a system through its vulnerabilities.

BUIDL: A wrapped spelling of “build” similar to “hodl” that suggests building and contributing to the blockchain rather than holding crypto tokens idly in your wallet. 

Bull: A person who believes the market will increase. This person would be “bullish” about the market.

Bullish: When the sentiments surrounding a cryptocurrency predict a price increase, it is said to be bullish

Bull Market: A market condition in which prices of assets are rising or are expected to rise

Bull Trap: T his occurs when a declining asset seems to increase in price only to decline once more.

Burn: The process of making a coin or token unusable, essentially taking it out of circulation.

Burned Tokens: Refers to digital tokens that have been permanently removed from circulation

Buy/ Sell Tax: A tax on crypto transactions in which a certain percentage of the amount bought or sold is transferred to a set address. 

Buy/Sell Wall: A large order placed by a crypto whale to buy or sell a certain crypto token when it reaches a particular price. Buy/ Sell walls prevent the price of a crypto token from dropping below a certain price and can be used to manipulate the price.

Byzantine Fault: An error on a computer system, often a distributed computing system that its faculty component is not easily detectable. 

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT): A feature on a computer program that allows it to reach consensus even when some of its components are down.

Byzantine Generals Problem: A term used to describe a circumstance in which a situation demands unanimous agreement from all members of a group that cannot be trusted or confirmed.

Cc

Candlesticks: A graph type that shows the change in price over time. Each candle shows the opening price, closing price, high, and low. This graph is also called as “candles”.

Cap: An abbreviation for market capitalization.

Capital: Reference to the amount of funds an individual wishes to invest in an asset or financial scheme.

Cash: A physical form of a currency, such as banknotes or coins.

Casper: This refers to the Ethereum Proof of Stake (PoS) Protocol that was designed to replace Proof of Work (PoW). 

CBDC: An acronym for “Central Bank Digital Currency” which refers to a digital currency issued by the central bank of a nation. Their value is pegged to the local currency.

Central ledger: A ledger used in centralized entities to keep record of financial transactions.

Centralized: An organization that only has a small number of nodes in one place. This organization is likely to hold a majority of its coin or token.

Centralized Exchange (CEX): A crypto exchange run in a centralized manner.

Chaffing: A cryptography technique that is used to maintain confidentiality and security without the need for encryption over an unsecured network. Chaffing involves taking a group of authenticated message blocks (wheat) and inserting a bunch of chaff blocks with random contents and MAC fields. This means that the chaff blocks appear to an adversary to be as genuine as the wheat blocks, necessitating authentication on each block. The sender can make cracking the message computationally impossible by customizing the number of chaff blocks sent to the transmission. This helps to protect against 51% attacks.

Chain Link: Refers to decentralised computer nodes that provided much-needed data and information for blockchain smart contracts. 

Chain Linking: C hain linking occurs when you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. Each cryptocurrency is lodged on its own blockchain and they must be linked in order to facilitate this transaction.

Chain split: Another term for fork.

Cipher: An algorithm that encrypts and decrypts information.

Circulating supply: This refers to the total amount of cryptocurrencies that can be traded or stored.

Cloud Mining: Cryptocurrency mining which occurs with processing power loaned from companies.

Coin: Refers to a single unit of a cryptocurrency.

Coinless protocol: Coinless protocol is built on the Ethereum blockchain and runs on smart contracts. Its purpose is to ensure autonomous management and the incentives for complying with smart contracts are built into the protocol itself.

Cold Storage: Cold storage is an offline wallet provided for storing cryptocurrencies. With cold storage, the digital wallet is stored on a platform that is not connected to the internet, thereby, protecting the wallet from unauthorized access, cyber hacks, and other vulnerabilities that a system connected to the internet is susceptible to.

Cold Wallet: A cryptocurrency wallet linked to a cold storage.

Collateralized Debt Obligation (CDO): This refers to a financial product whose value is derived from underlying assets and is sold to institutional investors. 

Collateralized Stablecoin: A stablecoin pegged to collateral in a reserve.

Collectibles: This refers to an item or collection of items that are considered valuable. Collectibles are considered valuable because of their uniqueness and can be sold for far more than their initial value.

Composability: This focuses on the interrelationship that exists between varying components of a system. Composability means that the components can be combined in varying techniques to meet certain needs. 

Confirmation: This is a process carried out by miners to verify transactions on a cryptocurrency’s network to certify that a transaction is valid. This prevents double spending & can take some minutes to be completed.

Confirmed: A transaction that has been confirmed or verified and is permanently added to the blockchain network.

Consensus: Consensus is achieved when active nodes agree on decisions that relate to the blockchain, which includes verification of blocks.

Consensus Mechanism: C onsensus mechanism is a technology embedded in the blockchain that facilitates fair agreement or consensus between active nodes.

Consensus process: In a consensus process the computer nodes responsible for validating a transaction work together to attain a solution.

Consortium blockchain: Consortium blockchain is a hybrid blockchain that combines the features of private and public blockchains. In a consortium blockchain rather than just having a blockchain where anyone can validate a transaction or a particular party validating a transaction, a number of selected expert and powerful parties are entrusted with validation

Crowdfunding: A fundraiser undertaken between several persons to fund a crypto project.

Crowd sale: A form of crowdfunding in which crypto tokens are sold to investors to raise funds for a crypto project.

Crypto Act of 2020: A bill introduced that defines the federal agencies that can regulate cryptocurrencies. 

Crypto Art: A digital art piece that is considered an original art piece because there is an option to attain verified ownership of the art piece. They are considered as collectibles that can be purchased with crypto assets. 

Crypto Asset: An asset that undertakes crypto-related technologies in its operations.

Crypto Bubble: A skeptical speculation that cryptocurrencies prices would soar very high and then come crashing down. 

Cryptocurrency: A digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography to secure and verify financial transactions.

Crypto Derivatives: T his refers to an asset that draws its value from underlying assets. A buyer and seller place opposing predictions about the value of an asset and earn a profit from wagering (betting) on its future value. 

Crypto Economics: Cryptoeconomics combines economics, computer science, and related sciences in studying the forces that impact the crypto market 

Cryptographic Hash Function: This process involves the inputation of data eg transactions which then produces a fixed-size output of enciphered text called a hash value, or just “hash.”

Cryptography: This is an encryption technique used to secure data in transmission, data in storage, and user authentication that allows only those for whom it is intended to read, interpret or process to access. This is what cryptocurrency is built with and gets its name from.

Cryptojacking: T he act of using another person’s computer to mine cryptocurrencies without their permission.

Crypto Kitty: Crypto kitty is a blockchain game that allows users to collect, sell and breed kitties using Ethereum. 

Cryptology: T he study of cryptography which includes encrypting and deciphering information.

Currency: A valuable asset used as a medium of exchange.

Custodial: The storage of private keys to an exchange or wallet are being held by a third-party service provider.

Cypherpunk: A movement that promotes the adoption of cryptocurrencies and crypto related projects.

Dd

DAA: An acronym for “Daily Active Addresses”  refers to the number of addresses on a certain blockchain that meets the set activity requirement. It is a matric used in determining how active a blockchain is. 

DAO: S tands for “Decentralized Autonomous Organisation”, a system developed and governed by a set of rules to automate decision making and facilitate cryptocurrency transactions.

Dark Web: A section of the internet that exists on the darknet and can only be accessed with special software and authorizations.

Dash: D ash (formerly called Darkcoin) is a fast payment cryptocurrency that was built using a copy of the Bitcoin source code in 2014, however, some significant improvements have been made to it that makes it’s major holders vote on network governance & use.

Date of Launch: R efers to the time frame in which ICO tokens are launched and put up for sale.

Day Trading: Buying and selling assets within a 24 hour benchmark to maximise profit.

Dead Cat Bounce: A market indicator that shows short-term recovery amidst a declining market. The recovery is only temporary and the asset value continues to diminish after. 

Dead Coin: A digital token that is no longer viable. It is originally designed as a cryptocurrency but then fails. A coin website that has been inactive for more than 3 months or has less than $1000 worth of trade in three months is considered a dead coin. 

Decentralized: This is a form of organized system that has no central point of control or authority, the whole system exists and functions from individual parts that follow a set of rules mutually agreed upon.

Decentralized Applications(dApps): An application that runs on a decentralized network, this negates a single point of failure.

Decentralized Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO):A n initiative that comprises the benefits of DAO and ICO, which allows a form of governance in the ICO process.

Decentralized Exchange(DEX): A peer-to-peer crypto exchange in which no intermediary is involved.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi) – A financial ecosystem that provides alternatives to traditional or centralized banking systems. It provides services such as banking, insurance, and loans among others.

Decentralized Identifier (DID) – An ID issued by an autonomous decentralized entity as proof of ownership.

Decryption: The process of transforming encoded data back to a readable form.

Deflation: A decline in the general price and value of assets in an economy.

Delegated Proof of Stake (dPOS): A hybrid alternative to Proof of Stake and Proof of Work.

Depth Chart: A depth chart is a marketing indicator that is used in observing the demand and supply of a digital asset to project the best time to sell or buy an asset. 

Derivatives: D erivatives are a financial contract or instrument between two parties whose value is determined by the performance of underlying assets. Underlying assets may include bonds, currencies, stocks, interest rates among others.  

Derivatives Market: The derivatives market is a financial market for financial products whose value is based on the prices of their underlying assets, such as futures contracts or options.

Deterministic Wallet: A deterministic wallet is a system that uses a seed to generate keys. A user may quickly back up and restore their wallet using the seed. 

Difficulty: limiter that cryptocurrencies use to keep the average times between blocks constant as the hashing power of the network changes.

Digital Commodity: An asset that exists virtually and can only be transferred electronically.

Digital Currency: Is digital or electronic money, that is exclusively online. Digital currency is not bound by borders and allows for instant transactions.

Digital Identity: I nformation that identifies a person or entity on the internet.

Digital Gold: Bitcoin is often referred to as digital gold. This is based on the assumption that bitcoin has a store of value like gold.

Digital Signature: Appears as a code on the internet and it is used to confirm authenticity of information transmitted electronically.

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG): A method of restructuring data that is used as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack: A cyberattack in which the attacker directs a lot of traffic to the target server or network to overwhelm and prevent them from completing their normal services. 

Distributed Ledger: Digital data which is stored in nodes that are spread out across a network.

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT): This refers to the technological infrastructure that allows the blockchain to function and run a distributed ledger that cannot be modified or manipulated.

Distribution: A n attempt to keep digital asset prices stable by selling coins in a systematic manner to avoid their collapsing, usually by crypto whales.

Diversification: A risk management strategy that involves spreading capital across various investment schemes.

Dolphin: A person with a moderate quantity of cryptocurrencies.

Dominance: Is a measure of Bitcoin’s marketing capitalization compared to the rest of the combined market capitalization of all other cryptos.

Double Spending: A situation in which an individual tries to manipulate a crypto transaction in order to spend the same cryptocurrency twice.

Dump: To sell off your cryptocurrency or when the marketing drops.

Dumping: Occurs when a significant market percentage sells-off cryptocurrencies within a short time frame.

Dust Attack: A dusting attack is when a small amount of cryptocurrency, known as dust, is distributed to thousands of wallet addresses in an attempt to invade steal their information and defraud them. 

Dust Transaction: D ust transactions are cryptocurrency transactions involving a minute amount of crypto. When the value of a transaction is less than the cost of spending it, it's referred to as "dust."

Dutch Auction: Also known as uniform price action or descending auction is an action strategy in which the auctioneer starts at the highest possible bidding price and then gradually reduces it until the bids collected covers the whole offer amount.

DYOR: A n acronym for “Do Your Own Research”

Ee

ECO: A token or coin earned by taking actions that contribute to energy conservation or sustainable energy. It can also be bought at a price.

Email Spoofing: The act of disguising as another person or entity in an email with the aim of scamming a person.

Emission: This refers to the speed at which new cryptocurrencies are released.

Encryption: A process through which information is made into codes.

Entry and Exit Points: Entry points refers to the time in which you buy a cryptocurrency while exit points refers to the point in which you exit the market by selling of the cryptocurrency. 

ERC: A n acronym for “Ethereum Request for Comments” is a compilation of all improvement proposals to Ethereum.

ERC 1155: An EIP proposal to develop a smart contract interface that can represent and control a wide range of fungible and non-fungible tokens.

ERC-20: A token standard for the Ethereum blockchain, used for implementing tokens. ERC-20 has rules defining interactions between tokens, transfer between address and data access.

ERC 721: This centers on setting a standard on ownership of non-fungible tokens.

Escrow: A financial set up in which an intermediary holds funds while a transaction is being concluded between a seller and buyer.

E-signature: An electronic signature or symbol used as an alternative to a physical signature.

Ether: The transactional token that enables transactions on the Ethereum network.

Ethereum: E thereum is an open-source, global, decentralized platform for money and new kinds of applications. Its cryptocurrency is used by applications built on Ethereum as platform fees to keep the applications running.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP): A document that describes the standard for making modifications to the Ethereum network.

Ethereum Name Service (ENS): ENS is an Ethereum-based service that allows crypto users to convert their machine-readable addresses to human-readable addresses. This allows you to easily send cryptocurrencies via the much simpler names of receiver.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM): A blockchain powered software that allows developers to build smart contracts or decentralized apps on the Ethereum network.

Etherscan: E therscan is a tool through which can view all assets on any Ethereum wallet.

Exchange: T his is also known as trading exchange or trading platform where buyers & sellers of a particular commodity, asset or currency meet to transact business. For cryptocurrencies, this is where people buy or sell crypto coins for other crypto coins or fiat.

Exchange Traded Fund (ETF): A security setup that tracks assets, bonds, and stocks which can also be traded like an asset.

Explain Like I'm Five (ELI5):  A crypto slang which emphasises breaking down concepts in a way that a five-year-old can understand.

Externally Owned Accounts (EOA): Refers to an account controlled by a private key. Anyone who holds the private key can send and receive messages from it.

Ff

Faucet: A reward system initiated on a website or app that rewards users for completing certain tasks. It is an initiative used to attract participants after the creation of an altcoin.

Fear and Greed Index: An index that is used to measure market sentiments of an asset. Extreme fear denotes that investors are worried and may sell-off assets while extreme greed may project more purchases out of FOMO. 

Fiat: T his is a currency belonging to a particular nation-state or group of nation-states that has no intrinsic value but is established as money by the government to be used for the payment of goods & services. Its acceptance by the public gives it value.

Fiat Gateways: A payment system (crypto exchange) that allows you to use local currencies (fiat) to purchase cryptocurrencies. 

Fiat-pegged Cryptocurrency: It refers to a stablecoin that is pegged or backed up by a government issued currency or fiat currency such as dollars, pounds, naira among others.

FIFO: Stands for “First In, First out”, an inventory system used for calculating your taxes.

Fish: Refers to an individual with little or almost insignificant amount of cryptocurrencies whose actions to sell or buy may not reflect in any major price fluctuations, unlike the dolphins or whales.

Flappening: A popular slang coined to describe the moment in which litecoin surpasses Bitcoin Cash in market capitalisation. 

Flash Loans: A type of loan that requires no collateral, one of the initiatives of DeFi, decentralized finance.

Flippening: This occurs when a cryptocurrency’s total market cap surpasses another cryptocurrency. 

Flipping: Flipping is a strategy that involves buying real estate assets with the aim of reselling in a short time frame to make the most profit. It may also be employed in ICO offerings, in which investors purchase tokens before they go public and sell it at an increased price immediately sales begin.

Fork: T his is when there is a split in a blockchain into two possible paths due to a protocol change.

FOMO: Stands for "fear of missing out".

Frictionless: A trading environment with no restraints or costs on transactions.

Frontrun: This is when a miner places a transaction on a queue because they have more information about a future transaction with the aim of earning a profit. 

Full Pay-Per-Share (FPPS): Also known as PPS+ refers to when a miner is paid an additional transaction fee incentive if a block is identified. 

Futures: An agreement between two parties with a predetermined date and price that obligates them to transact in the future based on the contract. 

Futures Contract: A Legal binding document that obligates parties involved to either buy or sell an asset at a particular time at a predetermined price. 

FUD: Stands for "Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt."

FUDster: A person who spreads FUD with the hope of bringing down the value of a cryptocurrency to make the most profit.

Full Node: A node that downloads a blockchain full history and checks blocks against Bitcoin’s consensus rules.

Fundamental Analysis (FA): A trading strategy that involves studying the intrinsic value of a cryptocurrency and its historical statistics to maximise profits.

Fungible: A coin or token that can be replaced by an identical coin or token is known as fungible

Gg

Gains: This centres on the increase in value or price of a crypto asset.

GameFi: A n industry that brings together gaming and crypto.

Gas: A unit used to measure the computational effort of processing a transaction or smart contract in the Ethereum network. It “fuels” the Ethereum network.

Gas Limit: The maximum gas a person is willing to spend on a transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. 

Gas Price: T he maximum amount a user is willing to pay for a transaction on the Ethereum Network.

Genesis Block: The first block of data that is processed and validated from a new blockchain, also called block 0 or block 1.

Golden Cross: A market indicator that predicts the price rally of an asset. 

Governance Token: A token provided to participants on the network that provides them the power to vote on governance. It can be given as a reward incentive for completing some tasks or can be bought at a price.

Graphical Processing Unit (GPU): It is commonly referred to as a graphics card or computer chip. GPU is a digital tool used to lighten the workload of processors during mining.

Group Mining: Group mining is when a group of miners combine their mining power to increase their chances of validating a block.

Gwei: T he denomination used to determine the cost of gas on an Ethereum Network, such as a gas price of 10,000 Gwei.

Hh

Hacking: The process of using a computer to forcefully gain access to another system.

Halving: A situation in which the total reward a miner should receive per block is halved.

Hard Cap: Refers to the total maximum supply of a crypto asset.

Hard Fork: A cryptocurrency splits in two, creating a new blockchain that follows a different protocol. Bitcoin Cash is a hard fork of Bitcoin.

Hardware Wallet: C ryptocurrencies are often stored on a virtual wallet. A hardware wallet allows you to store crypto on a physical medium such as a USB stick.

Hash: An algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit string of a fixed size and is a one-way function. It can't be read without a cipher.

Hash Function: A algorithm tool that is used to map data of arbitrary size and compress it to a fixed-sized value. 

Hash Graph: A distributed ledger system often described as an alternative to blockchains. 

Hash Rate: A measure of computational power required to process transactions on a Proof-of-work system. 

Hashing Power: Computational power (hash rate) of a system being measured in hash per second that is H/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH. H/s.

Hedging: A risk management strategy implemented to reduce loss associated with an investment. 

HODL: Stands for “Hold on for Dear life.” It suggests holding your cryptocurrencies for an extended period of time without the pressure of price changes.

Honeypot Scam: I n a honeypot scam, an attacker creates an illusion of a vulnerability in the system. While the user tries to exploit this vulnerability, the user's funds are locked in such that only the attacker has access to them. 

Hot Wallet: A crypto wallet connected to the internet to facilitate hot storage of cryptocurrencies.

Hot Storage:  Storing private keys online, which offer quick access to cryptocurrencies. This also comes with a higher risk. 

Hybrid PoS, PoW: T his allows for Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work to run on the same network. It combines the security of PoW and the energy efficiency of PoS.

Hyperledger: A n opensource blockchain created to advance blockchain technologies. 

Ii

IDO: A n acronym for “Initial Decentralised Offering” A decentralised and permissionless crowdfunding initiative similar to ICO.  In contrast to an ICO, where tokens are sold before being posted on an exchange, tokens in an IDO are instantly listed on the DEX through which they are launched.

Immutable: A feature of an asset that marks it as difficult to change or modify.

Impermanent Loss: A temporary loss that involves a trader losing some capital because of volatility in a trading pair.

Inflation:  A decrease in the buying power of money and an increase in prices. 

Initial Bounty Offering (IBO): A financial scheme in which participants contribute their skills to a project rather than funds.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO): Sell tokens with the intention of crowdfunding a project.

Initial Exchange Offering: A crowdfunding scheme through which crypto start-ups generate funds through listing on an exchange.

Initial Token Offering (ITO): I t focuses on offering tokens which have its intrinsic value in the form of software or energy which are then offered on sale as a means of crowdfunding a project.

Institutional Investors: T his refers to persons or groups of persons that invest in assets on behalf of their clients or members. 

Intermediary: Refers to a middleman or a go-to-person in a transaction between two other parties, a seller and buyer.

Internet of Things (IoT): A feature embedded in computing devices that allows devices to communicate and send data.

Interoperability: Refers to the ability of distinct blockchain networks to share data, as well as move different digital assets between the networks' blockchains without restriction.

InterPlanetary File System (IPFS): A peer-to-peer and protocol network designed for storing and transmitting data on a distributed file system.

Invest: S etting aside money in a financial scheme or project with the aim of making profit.

IPO Initial Public Offering: The process in which shares of a private corporation are offered to the public to raise capital for expanding the corporation.

Jk

JOMO: Stands for ‘joy of missing out’.

Kk

Kimchi Premium: The token price differences between global crypto exchanges and South Korean exchanges. 

KYC: “Know your customer”, the obligation of the financial company to verify the identity of the customer.

Ll

Lambo: An abbreviation of “Lamborgini” which is used to describe a significant price increase that allows a person get rich quickly; rich enough to buy exotic cars. 

Ledger: T his is a (digital) record book of all transactions on a cryptocurrency network, also known as the blockchain. The records are updated in real-time & show a history of all transactions from the day of inception to present making verification of data easy.

Leverage: R efers to funds loaned from crypto exchanges to increase a trader’s trading power.

Lightning Network: Layer two payment protocols on top of the blockchain. Its goal is to solve Bitcoin scalability issues by enabling faster, scalable transactions between and across nodes.

Light Node: Light nodes refer to downloaded wallets connected to a full node to help in the validation of transactions on a blockchain.

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell: An order placed by a trader to automatically buy or sell a token when it reaches a particular price. 

Liquidity: An indication of how easily cryptocurrency can be bought and sold.

Liquidity Pools: T hese are created to provide consistent liquidity in a market by enabling the trade of trading pairs on a decentralized exchange.

Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS): A proof of stake system that allows investors to loan their validation rights without losing ownership of the token.

Liquidity Provider: This refers to active participants on a decentralized exchange platform that provide funds to fund a liquidity pool.

Lock Time: A lso known as timelock, is a timestamp that determines when a transaction sent to the blockchain can be processed. 

Long/ Long Position: A trading strategy in which you purchase cryptocurrencies with the expectation that the value would increase so you can sell for a higher profit in future.

Mm

MACD: An acronym for “Moving Average Convergence Difference”, a technical analysis tool used for observing price trends.

Mainnet: A blockchain that is running on its own technology and protocol.

Margin Bear Position: A position taken with the assumption that the prices will decline with expectations of profit from the bearish market.

Margin Bull Position: A position taken with the assumption that the prices will rice with expectations of profit from the bullish market.

Margin Call: A notification from an exchange which loaned leverage informing a trader that their position is running at a loss. The trader may be asked to either provide more collateral or the account would be closed and liquidated.

Margin Trading: It refers to a trading strategy that helps increase a trader's trading capital by taking a loan from an exchange.

Market: A gathering of people in an area, either physical or virtual, where trades and similar transactions are completed.

Market Buy / Market Sell: This is an order to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at the best available price. 

Market Capitalization: T his is calculated by multiplying the total amount of coins of a cryptocurrency in circulation and its price. It is also used to rank cryptocurrencies.

Market Maker: A market maker, also known as a liquidity provider, quotes both a purchase and a selling price for an asset with the hopes of profiting from the bid-ask spread. 

Market Order: A type of limit order that specifies the time at which a trade should be executed. 

Market Signal: R efers to an indication or information passed across passively or intentionally among traders in a given market.

Market Taker: A market taker is an individual who completes the market order by accepting to either buy or sell from existing orders.  

Marlin Protocol: High-performance network infrastructure for modern decentralized networks.

Masternodes: A series of computer systems that are used to process and validate transactions. 

Max Supply: T he total amount of coins of a cryptocurrency that would exist in a lifetime.

Memecoin: Refers to a coin that has humorous characteristics or originated from an internet meme.

Mempool: An abbreviation of “memory pool” which refers to a database that contains pending or unconfirmed transactions.

Merge: T his refers to the deployment of Ethereum's execution layer (the existing Ethereum network)  to the "consensus layer" of Ethereum's forthcoming proof-of-stake blockchain, the Beacon chain.

Merkle Tree: Also known as the hash tree, refers to a data structure which is used to encrypt data securely. It has its leaves labelled with the cryptographic hash of a data block. Its non-leaf nodes are labelled with the cryptographic hash of its child nodes' labels

MetaMask: A cryptocurrency wallet that allows you to interact on the Ethereum Network and participate in DeFi projects.

Metaverse: The metaverse is a virtual reality world where users can interact, play games, and have real-life experiences.

MicroBitcoin (uBTC): I t is sometimes referred to as a fork of bitcoin however, it is the millionth fraction of bitcoin. One microbitcoin equals 100 satoshi

Microtransaction: Tiny payments that are made in exchange for digital products or services. An example would be purchasing something in a video game, which could be in-game currency or upgrades.

Mimblewimble: An Harry Potter spell that prevents you from exposing secrets. In the crypto space, it is a protocol that allows for a completely private transaction through a unique security network. There are no addresses and the transactions are purely confidential. 

Mineable: A cryptocurrency with mining systems that miners can profit from.

Miner: An individual or group of persons who use computational power and skills to confirm and verify transactions on the blockchain. They earn a reward for their contribution to the blockchain. 

Miner Fee: A lso called transaction fees, users of a cryptocurrency who send out coins on the cryptocurrency blockchain/network pay small amounts of their coins to miners whose work is to verify the authenticity of transactions on the network and are paid according to the size of value being sent.

Mining: Using GPU power to solve PoW equations that add blocks to the blockchain and verify transactions.

Mining Contract: A mining initiative in which the hashing power of a mining hardware is loaned out for a certain amount of time. It may also be referred to as cloud mining.

Mining Reward (Block Reward): T he reward received from contributing your computation power to process transactions.

Mining Pool: Grouping together computational power to gain an advantage in finding the next block on the blockchain.

Mining Rig: A computer used for mining. It is usually composed use multiple GPUs to get the highest hash rate.

Mnemonic Phrase: A phrase or list of words used to access and recover cryptocurrency assets.

Mnemonics: A learning technique or memory aid that helps to aid retention and retrieval of information.

Mobile Wallet: A virtual wallet that operates on a mobile device, stores payment information, and can be used to complete transactions.

Money Laundering: A n evasive strategy employed by criminals to hide their funds from the government.

Money Services Business (MSB): This refers to an entity that transfers or converts money. 

Moon: A crypto slang used to describe continuous upward price movement of a cryptocurrency.

Mt. Gox: One of the first exchanges to allow the purchase of cryptocurrencies with traditional or local currencies (fiat).

Multi Signature: More than one key is required to authorize a transaction, that way if a single key is compromised one or more keys are still required to approve the transaction.

Nn

Network: All active nodes of a blockchain at any time.

Newb/Newbie: D escribes an individual who is new to a particular industry or just started participating in an activity. Such an individual may also be referred to as a beginner or novice.

No-coiner: A person who has strong convictions that cryptocurrencies would fail and holds no cryptocurrencies.

Node: I t refers to a device or system connected to a network.

Nonce: An abbreviation for, Number Only Used Once”, refers to a randomly generated number during mining that is encrypted in the blockchain. It is generated as part of an authentication mechanism to prevent replay attacks on previous

Non-custodial: The users directly hold their private keys to their wallets.

Non-Fungible Token (NFT): R efers to tokens that cannot be duplicated or replicated.

Noobs: An individual who is new and doesn’t have much experience in an industry.

Oo

OCO: An acronym for “One Cancels the Other Order “. which refers to a situation in which two crypto orders are placed at the same time, with the restriction that if one is approved, the other is canceled

Off-Chain: This refers to transactions that occur within a cryptocurrency network that move the value out of the blockchain. Off-chain transactions have lower costs, faster settlement times, and more anonymity than on-chain transactions.

Offline Staking: Also known as cold staking, refers to staking conducted with a cold wallet that is without access to the internet. 

Offline Storage: Storing cryptocurrency on a device that is not connected to the internet.

On-chain Governance: A system for making modifications and managing cryptocurrency networks without compromising their security. 

Online Storage: T he storage of cryptocurrencies in a device or wallet that is connected to the internet.

Open/Close: Open refers to a cryptocurrency’s price at the start of the day, while close is the cryptocurrency’s price at the end of the day. 

Open Source: The open-source model is a decentralized software development style in which the source code is available to the general public for use, audit & modification from its original design free of charge.

Options: An option is a contract that provides the investor the right to buy or sell a specified asset at a specific price on or before a specific expiration date.

Oracles: Oracle is a service that connects the blockchain to the real world. It connects smart contracts to the outside world, allowing them to both receive and send information.

Order Book: A n order book is an electronic record of all the buy and sell orders of an asset on an exchange. 

Overbought: O verbought refers to a situation in which the price of a cryptocurrency rises over time as a result of continued investments, but there is no supporting investment reason. Numerous sell-offs are expected after this period. 

Oversold: T his is when the price of an asset, is trading below its true value.

Over the Counter (OTC): Over the counter trading is an activity done directly between two parties without using a regular exchange.

Pp

Pair: T he trade or exchange of one cryptocurrency for another.

Paper wallet: A paper wallet is an offline mechanism for storing cryptocurrency. The process involves printing the private keys and Bitcoin addresses onto paper. Whatever can happen to cash can happen to a paper wallet so safekeeping is advised.

Password Manager: A software application or tool that helps you manage passwords for different applications and software.

Pay-Per-Last N Shares (PPLNS): When a block is found, each miner's reward is determined based on the miner's contribution to the previous N pool shares.

Pay-Per-Share (PPS): This means a miner receives a standard payout rate for each share solved. 

Peer to Peer(P2P): An interaction between decentralized parties in a distributed network.

Peg: A fixed price or exchange rate between two assets.

Permissioned Blockchain: A blockchain that is not publicly accessible and can only be accessed by users with permissions who can only perform specific actions granted to them by the central administrators of the blockchain. 

Permissionless ledger: A blockchain that is publicly accessible such that anyone can access it without any restrictions.

Pizza: Also referred to as bitcoin pizza is the first known purchase of a physical item with crypto (bitcoin).

Phishing: A fraudulent cybercrime in which an attacker disguises as a trusted entity to steal your information through emails, SMS, social media platforms.

Ponzi scheme: A fraudulent investment scheme in which the investments of an individual is used to pay existing investors.

Portfolio: A collection of cryptocurrencies held by an individual or a fund.

Pre-sale: A presale is when a particular ICO token is available for sale to private investors or community members before it is sold in the ICO.

Privacy Coins: Privacy coins are cryptocurrencies designed to maintain the anonymity of a transaction and the parties involved.

Private Blockchain: Private blockchains are permissioned blockchains in which only select individuals can see and make modifications to the blockchain. 

Private Key: A code generated from the encryption process, which can be paired with the public key to decrypt information.

Priority: The speed at which your transaction will be included in a block. The higher the priority the faster the transfer.

Proof-of-Authority: A consensus algorithm that uses identity as a stake in validating transactions and running the blockchain network.

Proof of Burn (PoB): A consensus algorithm focused on managing energy consumption. It achieves this by rewarding miners for burning tokens. 

Proof of Developer PoD: A consensus algorithm that identifies the developer as a means to provide legitimacy and prevents an imposter developer from receiving unmerited rewards.  

Proof of Stake(PoS): A blockchain consensus mechanism in which the creator of the next block is chosen by various variables.

Proof of Work(PoW): A blockchain consensus mechanism that involves solving computational intensive equations to validate transactions and create new blocks.

Protocol: A rule set that defines interactions on a network.

Public Address: A cryptographic hash of a public key, this address allows you to receive cryptocurrency.

Pseudonymous: A false name used to identify a person.

Public Blockchain: A blockchain network that can be accessed by anyone from a computer system.

Public Key: A cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: the public key which can be circulated widely and private key which is only known by the owner.

Public Ledger: A ledger in which anyone can access or view every transaction ever made on the blockchain network.

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme: A fraudulent scheme that involves the artificial inflation of the price of a cryptocurrency, which the intention of selling the once low priced currency at a higher amount.

Pyramid Scheme: A fraudulent scheme that undertakes a hierarchical structure and pays the top tier members with funds from new members.

Qq

Quantum proof: A blockchain that is resistant to quantum computer attacks. This is based on the perception that cryptocurrencies are vulnerable to quantum computers, which are believed to break through cryptography codes much faster than traditional computers.

QR Code: A label that shows information encoded into a graphical black and white patter. It is often used to share wallet addresses.

Quote: To provide an estimated value or price for an asset.

Rr

Rank: The position a crypto asset holds by value of its market capitalization.

Ransomware:  A hacking attempt to infect computers and encrypts files, holding them hostage until the owner pays to regain access.

Reddit r/CryptoCurrency Moon: A cryptocurrency on social media platform Reddit that rewards people for contributing to its digital token.

Regulation: A set of rules implemented by an authority or government that guides an activity.

Regulatory Compliance: A set of rules that a company is required to follow to monitor accountability.

Rekt: A crypto slang for “wrecked” that represents a bad trade.

Replay Attack: Also known as playback attack or repeat attack, is a network attack in which valid data transmission is intercepted and delayed to mislead the receiver into doing what the hacker wants.

Relative Strength Index (RSI): A trading tool that is used to measure the price movement of a crypto asset to determine the strength of its market.

Ring Signature: A signature in a cryptographic set up, which a set of participants that have access to unique keys can create. It is used to obscure the identities of participants in a transaction.

ROI: “ Return on Investment”, the ratio between the net profit and cost of investing.

Rug Pull: A deceptive cryptocurrency scheme in which crypto developers abandon a project (removing liquidity) and disappear with the funds of investors. This causes a sharp price drop, resulting in huge losses for investors.

Ss

SALT: An acronym for “Secured Automated Lending Technology”, which provides borrowers with loans using cryptocurrencies as collateral. It could also refer to a random input that is introduced to a password or a passphrase to make the hash unique and prevent it from being decoded easily by a hacker.

Satoshi: A satoshi is the smallest unit of a bitcoin. It is equal to one hundred millionth of a bitcoin, or .00000001 BTC. A satoshi are to Bitcoin what cents are to the dollar.

Satoshi Nakamoto: A n individual or group of individuals that are responsible for creating Bitcoin. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto has never been confirmed.

SATS: An abbreviation of satoshi, the smallest unit of bitcoin.

Scalability: T he capacity of a system to process more tasks, increase performance while reducing the cost of doing so

Scalability Limitation: R efers to the limitation of a blockchain that limits the speed of its transactions and the quantity of transactions it can process in a time frame.

Scalability Solution: A proposed solution with the aim of solving the scalability limitations of a blockchain network.

Scalping: This refers to a trading strategy that involves buying and selling a digital token numerous times on the same day within short durations in order to profit from slight price swings throughout that period.

Scam: A cryptocurrency that is known to be deceptive or fraudulent.

Scammer: A person who participates in a fraudulent scheme to steal people’s funds or crypto assets.

Scrypt: Scrypt is a password-based key derivation mechanism that uses a lot of memory in order to make large-scale hardware attacks more expensive.

Second-Layer Solutions: A secondary network built on top of a public blockchain to improve its scalability and efficiency.

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU): An emergency fund set aside by Binance to protect users' assets against theft or a catastrophic event. 

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): An independent agency of the government that oversees federal securities laws and is responsible for proposing laws, implementing regulations, and protecting the market against manipulation.

Security Token: A security token is a unique  code that allows you to access an electronically restricted resource.

Security Token Offering: A security token is a one-of-a-kind token that represents a stake in an external asset or organization and is issued on a permissioned or permissionless blockchain.

Seed: A list of random words which store all the information needed to recover a Bitcoin wallet.

Segregated Witness (SegWit): A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) that is geared towards solving bitcoin scalability problems.

Selfish Mining: S elfish mining is a dishonest cryptocurrency mining practice in which a single miner or a group solves a hash, creates a new block and conceals it from the public blockchain. The other miners continue to waste computing resources on an old block, allowing the selfish miner to get a head start on the newer block.

Sell Offs: A sell-off occurs when a large volume of assets are sold in a brief span of time, causing the asset's price to decline rapidly. It is motivated by bearish market sentiment. 

Sharding: Sharding splits a blockchain company's entire network into smaller segments known as "shards," with each shard handling transaction processing. Sharding is used to relieve pressure on other components such as the CPU or GPU, allowing more computational power to be dedicated to solving cryptographic puzzles and reaching consensus.

Shilling: A ctively and enthusiastically promoting a cryptocurrency.

Short: A trading technique in which a trader sells an asset with the expectation that it would decline in price so he can make a purchase when it drops and sell for a higher price later.

Sidechain: A sidechain is a blockchain network that is connected to the main chain through a two-way peg. It runs alongside the main chain and allows assets to be transferred between the two.

Signal: A n indicator that informs traders on whether they should buy or sell an asset.

Sim Swapping: Also known as sim swap attack, is an attack that attempts to gain access to your mobile device and locks you out in an attempt to gain access to your accounts and defraud you. 

Smart Contract: A software protocol intended to digitally facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. Smart contracts allow the performance of credible transactions without third parties. These transactions are trackable and supposedly irreversible.

Shitcoin: The term crypto traders give to some coins which they perceive to be of little or no value.

Soft cap: The lowest amount of funds that can be raised for a project, usually determined by the project's management.

Soft Fork: A software upgrade, similar to updating an app on a mobile device that occurs on the blockchain. It renders previous transactions invalid and miners may have to upgrade their software to continue the mining process.

Software Wallet: A computer program that allows you access to your cryptocurrencies and helps to secure its transactions.

Software Development Kit (SDK): A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of software development tools in one easy-to-install package. They aid application development by providing a software framework.

Solidity: Solidity is a programming language used in creating smart contracts. It is used to build smart contracts on a variety of blockchain systems, the most popular of which is Ethereum.

Solo Staker: A Qtum (quantum) Proof-of-Stake miner staking their own currency.

SPAC: Special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs): SPAC, also known as a blank check company, is a corporation that has no commercial activity and was formed only for the goal of generating funds through an initial public offering (IPO). 

Spyware: A software that infiltrates your system to steal sensitive information.

Stablecoin: A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency that has a fixed price with the intention of offering stability to those who want little to no volatility while dealing with cryptocurrencies. They are often backed by a reserve asset like the USD or gold.

Stake: A number of crypto funds set aside as collateral.

Staking: Staking is the process of locking in your crypto assets so that they can be used for proof-of-stake validation.

Stale Block: A successful block that was not included on the current longest blockchain, usually because another block of the same height was added to the chain first. They are referred to as double-mined blocks and aren't part of the blockchain.

State Channel: A state channel is an auxiliary payment channel that lets people conduct transactions with one another outside of the blockchain, or "off-chain."

Stop-loss Order/ Stop Order: T he stop-loss order is a type of limit order designed to protect traders from losses by selling when the asset's price falls below a certain level. 

Store of Value: A feature of an asset that allows it to be stored, exchanged and retrieved.

Super Staker: A full node Qtum Core wallet that provides Proof of Stake for assigned addresses while keeping a small portion of each block reward as a charge for providing staking services.

Symbol: A distinct mark or character used to identify an item, function, or activity.

Tt

Tangle: T angle is a cryptocurrency transaction system that works similarly to Blockchain. It makes use of a  directed acyclic graph (DAG) and is also not under the control of a central authority.

Technical Analysis: A trading method or strategy that allows a trader to forecast the price movement of an asset by studying the past market trends.

Testnet: T he testnet is an alternative blockchain, to be used for testing software upgrades & improvement protocols to work out errors & bugs before being moved to the main blockchain.

Think Long Term (TLT): An investment mindset that convinces you to store an asset for an extended time frame (months or years) to maximise profit.

Ticker/ Ticker symbol: A ticker is a string of letters that is used to represent an asset, stocks, DeFi solutions, cryptocurrencies on an exchange platform. E.g Bitcoin’s ticker symbol is BTC. 

Time Lock: A lso referred to as Locktime, a feature that determines the time frame in which a transaction should be processed.

Timestamp: A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day. Entries in decentralized ledgers are timestamped.

Token: Created it for its utility of providing access to a larger crypto economic system. They are made so the software can be developed around them.

Token Generation Event (TGE): A Token Generation Event (TGE) is the process of creating a token on a blockchain-based network and launching it into the market, usually through a public sale, private sale, or initial coin offering (ICO). TGE  is often used to gain visibility, increase crypto participation, and raise funds. 

Tokenize: T he process of giving digital value to real assets for the purpose of offering ownership.

Tokenless Ledger: A type of distributed ledger that does not require a  native currency to operate, also known as "pure" or "transaction-only" blockchain.

Tokenomics: A combination of the word “token” and ‘economic”. It centers on the economic features or benefits of a token that makes it attractive to investors. It also explains the sentiments around a token that could affect its monetary value.

Token sale: The process of raising funding for a blockchain project by selling digital tokens or coins before the project is live to generate revenue.

Token Swap: Refers to the direct exchange of a token for another. It could also refer to the migration of a token to another blockchain.

TOR: An open-source decentralized software that anonymizes a user’s web activities such that it is difficult to track. It may also refer to the acronym for "Terms of Reference", which defines the purpose of a project, its protocols, and the means to achieve it.

Total supply: T he total amount of cryptocurrencies in existence with the exceptions of cryptocurrencies that have been burned.

Total value locked (TVL) : The overall value of crypto assets placed (staked) in a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol is referred to as total value locked (TVL). It is calculated by dividing the total value of coins locked in a master node by the number of master nodes in existence at the time. It is a metric for calculating the health of a DeFi protocol. 

TPS: An acronym for “Transactions Per Second”, that is the total amount of transactions completed per second. 

Trading Tournament: A trading campaign employed by crypto exchanges to encourage traders to trade more to earn a reward.

Trading Volume: The number of cryptocurrencies traded within 24 hours

Transaction (TX): The exchange of an asset

Transaction Fee Market: It is a strategy that allows non-validators/miners who nevertheless want their transactions completed promptly to voluntarily boost fees as an incentive for miners to prioritize them over others on a blockchain network.

Transaction ID (TXID): E very cryptocurrency transaction comes with a transaction ID the same way every bank transaction comes with a transaction ID. This ID is a unique string of letters & numbers that makes a transaction trackable on the blockchain of the cryptocurrency.

Transaction Fee: Also called miners’ fees, users of a cryptocurrency who send out coins on the cryptocurrency blockchain/network pay small amounts of their coins to miners whose work is to verify the authenticity of transactions on the network and are paid according to the size of value being sent.

Transaction Malleability: Transaction malleability is the process of altering a transaction's unique id by altering the digital signature that was used to generate it.

Transaction Malleability Attack: It's a dubious exploit that allows an attacker to modify a bitcoin transaction's unique ID before it's confirmed on the network. If the attacker is able to successfully pull this off,  the alteration allows someone to pretend that a transaction never took place.

Transaction Pool: Also known as a mempool, is a data structure that stores the set of unmined transactions that have been validated by miners. 

Trustless: This is a system of distributing trust among different actors in a system via an economic game that incentivizes participants in the system to cooperate with the rules defined by the protocol. The Bitcoin blockchain is an example.

Turing Completeness: T uring completeness refers to a machine's ability to do all possible programmable calculations. It is a data manipulation system that can read programming languages and complex databases utilizing a small collection of data, most commonly the Turing machine. 

Turing Machine: A system that  helps with solving problems and the calculation of data systems that are difficult for the human mind to understand

Two Factor Authentications (2FA): A digital security measure that necessitates a user to provide two proofs of identity before they can access a website or application.

Uu

Unbanked: Refers to a group of people that do not have access to banking service or choose not to because of certain limitations.

Underbanked: A grouping of people who have limited access to banking services.

Unconfirmed: This is when a transaction hasn’t been verified on the blockchain by miners.

Unpermissioned Ledger: A digital record-keeping software that anyone can download, run and add entries into it according to the preset rules to achieve consensus without license or restriction from a central source. Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO): UTXO represents the amount of digital currency left after a crypto transaction has been completed. They are the coins in the wallet that haven't been spent yet.

UTC Time:  Referred to as "Coordinated Universal Time," which is the standard through which time in the world is regulated.

Utility Token: A token purchased with the expectation that it would offer the buyers certain privileges to consumer products.

Vv

Validator: A participant who takes part in the validation of blocks on the Proof-of-Stake Consensus Algorithms.

Vaporware: A product that is announced to the public, but is never actually created.

Variable Buy/Sell Tax: A non-fixed buy/sell tax that permits contract owners to adjust the tax rate at will.

Venture Capital: A form of private equity provided to fund start-ups with the potential of growth.

Virgin Bitcoin: R efers to bitcoins that have never been spent.

Vitalik Buterin: Co-founder of Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency.

Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs):v AMM is a programmable smart contract that provides synthetic (or virtual) liquidity to traders, allowing them to purchase and sell derivatives completely on the blockchain.  They help to maintain the market liquidity when there aren't any active buyers or sellers.

Volatile market: A market that is characterised by sharp price fluctuations either bearish or bullish that makes it difficult to predict the direction in which the market will move. 

Volatility: The degree of variation in trading prices over a period of time, measured by using the standard deviation of returns.

Volume: The amount of cryptocurrency that has been traded over a period of time, the supply and demand play a role in determining this.

Ww

Wallet: A software system that stores a user’s information, transaction details and funds.

Wallet Address: A lso known as a public key, is a unique string of numbers and characters that are used to send you cryptocurrency. 

Wallet Seed Phrase: A seed phrase is a string of words generated by your wallet and used to gain access to the crypto linked with it. The seed phrase is similar to a password or private pin.

Wash Trade: A market manipulation strategy that involves purchasing and selling assets through different identities to create false activity in the market.

Watchlist: A watchlist is a feature of some exchanges that allow users to create a personal list of cryptocurrencies they wish to observe their activity.

Weak Hands: A trader who has the tendency to sell an asset at slightest inclination of a price decline.

Website: A set of web pages with related contents under a domain name registered to an individual or entity.

Web3 Wallet: A digital wallet that allows users to store digital assets such as NFTs, and interact with dApps. 

Wei: The smallest denomination of Ethereum. 1 Eth = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Wei

Whale: A n investor who has a large amount of crypto, enough to manipulate the market.

Whale Watching: Whale-watching is the act of tracking the activities of major crypto holders to see when they make significant trade moves that could affect price fluctuations.

When Lambo: A crypto slang referring to a time frame in which crypto traders would get rich enough to purchase a Lamborghini. It is often used along with the phrase “When Moon” suggesting a time in which cryptocurrencies would explode in value.

When Moon: A n expression used by investors to ask when the price of an asset or crypto-token will skyrocket.

Whitelist: A list of participants who indicate interest in participating in an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).

Whitepaper: A document prepared for investors that outlines the vision, cryptocurrency use, cryptoeconomic design, technical information, and a roadmap.

Xx

Xylyl: A univalent radical.

Yy

YTD: Y ear to Date.

Yield Farming: Yield farming involves the practice of staking or lending your crypto funds to generate profit.

Zz

Zero Confirmation Transaction: A nother name for an unconfirmed transaction.

Zero-Knowledge Proof/ Protocol: A means of proving to another party in cryptography that a particular statement is true without providing extra information beyond that which is already known.

Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge (Zk-SNARKs): Zk-SNARKS refers to a form of zero-knowledge proof that requires no direct interaction or additional information between the prover and the verifier. 

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