Your dictionary to everything crypto

Make a good impression. Learn all of the most important crypto and financial terms and jargons here.

Your dictionary to everything crypto


A 10-K is a detailed report filed by a publicly traded company annually about its financial performance and is required by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This report is more comprehensive and detailed than a company’s annual report sent to shareholders. A 10-K contains information such as the company’s history, organisational structure, financial statements, earnings per share, subsidiaries, executive compensation, and other essential data. The 10-K is required to keep the investors aware of a company’s financial condition, allowing them to have all the information to buy or sell shares in a corporation or before investing in its corporate bonds. Read More


This is a comprehensive report necessitated by the US Security and Exchange Commission that all public companies must share at the end of their first three quarters. This report provides a detailed overview of the company's financial performance, including unaudited financial statements, and discusses the company's financial condition, operations, and risks. It is a critical resource for investors and analysts, offering insights into the company's health and prospects. Read More

51% attack

A 51% Attack, also known as a Majority Attack, occurs when a malicious actor or a group working together gains control of more than 50% of a blockchain network's total mining power (hashrate). This control allows them to disrupt the network's integrity and operations in several harmful ways. The potential actions of an attacker with such control include: Read More

Absolute advantage

Absolute advantage occurs when a company or country can produce more of a product using the same amount of resources or produce the same amount of a product using fewer resources than its competitors. In contrast, comparative advantage refers to the ability to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than others.  Opportunity cost represents the potential benefits lost when choosing one option over another. While absolute advantage focuses on efficiency and productivity in using resources, comparative advantage centres on the cost advantage gained by producing goods more efficiently relative to other choices that an individual, investor, or business misses out on when choosing one alternative over another. Read More


An address is similar to a traditional bank account. It is a unique destination through which crypto users can send and receive digital currencies. It usually consists of alphanumeric keys. Unlike bank accounts, which are tied to personal information and managed by financial institutions, cryptocurrency addresses offer a higher degree of anonymity and are managed by users. A cryptocurrency address is typically a long string of alphanumeric characters that uniquely identifies the destination or source of a digital currency transaction. This string is derived from cryptographic keys, ensuring a secure way to execute transactions on the blockchain. Read More

Address Delegation

A person, rather than holding some crypto tokens idly in a wallet, entrusts it to a staker so it can be used to validate transactions. Address delegation is a mechanism within the cryptocurrency ecosystem that allows token holders to participate indirectly in the network's consensus process. This process is particularly relevant in blockchain networks that use Proof of Stake (PoS) or its variants (such as Delegated Proof of Stake, DPoS) as their consensus mechanism. Instead of merely keeping their tokens idle in a digital wallet, token holders can delegate their tokens to a validator, also known as a staker, who is responsible for validating transactions and maintaining the integrity of the blockchain. Read More


AFK is an acronym for “Away From Keyboard”. It is used on social media platforms like Twitter where people share their trading activity to notify users that they would be away for some time. In the context of crypto, when someone posts "AFK" in relation to their trading activity, it serves as a notification to their followers or audience that they will be temporarily unavailable or not actively monitoring the markets. Read More

Air Gapping

Air gapping is a security mechanism that ensures a computer is isolated from unsecured networks to prevent hacking attacks. An air-gapped computer is physically segregated from other computers and cannot connect wirelessly or physically with other network or computer devices. Air gaps help protect the computer from malicious attacks or ransomware. When there is a need to make a transfer on the air-gapped computer, the data is copied to a removable device such as a USB device. The user then connects the USB device to another computer. This ensures that only a few trusted users can access the computer, protecting it from cyber-attacks. Read More


 An airdrop refers to the free distribution of a new token or cryptocurrency to the wallets of active community members, primarily as a marketing strategy to boost the token's popularity and encourage widespread usage. Blockchain startups often employ this approach to enhance awareness and adoption of their digital assets. Typically, to qualify for an airdrop, participants may need to complete specific tasks such as downloading an application, referring friends, or holding a certain amount of another cryptocurrency. Airdrops serve not only as a promotional tactic but also as a way to incentivise engagement within the crypto community. Some airdrops also aim to distribute governance tokens, granting holders voting rights on the platform further integrating them into the ecosystem's development and decision-making processes. Read More


An algorithm is a set of rules embedded into computer software to enable it to perform specific functions. In the crypto space, an algorithm is a set of predefined rules embedded within the computer software, allowing it to execute specific functions crucial for the operation of blockchain networks. Among these, consensus algorithms stand out for their role in ensuring all network participants agree on the validity of transactions, thereby maintaining the blockchain's integrity and security without the need for a central authority. This approach not only streamlines the process of verifying transactions but also enhances the scalability and efficiency of the network, making cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum possible and functional on a global scale. Read More

All-Time High (ATH)

An All-Time High is the highest price ever attained by a cryptocurrency. For instance, Bitcoin reached an ATH price of $68,680 on Nov 09, 2021. The ATH of a cryptocurrency can serve as a measurement of market sentiment and investor enthusiasm. When a cryptocurrency reaches its ATH, it often indicates strong investor confidence and a bullish market outlook. Additionally, ATH provides a historical benchmark for cryptocurrencies, offering investors and analysts a point of reference to assess the asset's performance over time. It helps in understanding the growth trajectory and volatility of the cryptocurrency. Read More

All-Time Low (ATL)

An All-Time Low (ATL) is the lowest price ever attained by a cryptocurrency. This metric is significant for investors and analysts as it provides a historical benchmark, indicating the lowest valuation the market has assigned to a particular digital asset. Understanding the ATL helps in assessing the risk and potential of an investment, as it offers insight into the asset's volatility and market sentiment during its least favourable period. By examining the ATL, stakeholders can gauge the resilience of a cryptocurrency, how it has recovered from its lowest point, and its potential for future growth or decline, making it a crucial piece of data in the complex puzzle of cryptocurrency investment analysis. Read More


Alphanumeric refers to a string of characters with alphabets and numbers. This classification includes all the letters from A to Z (in both uppercase and lowercase) and the digits from 0 to 9. Alphanumeric strings are widely used in various contexts, such as creating passwords, identification numbers, and coding systems, because they offer a higher level of complexity and variation than strings composed solely of letters or numbers. This blend of alphabetic and numeric characters enables the creation of more unique and secure identifiers, enhancing the ability to store and retrieve information efficiently in databases, systems, and secure processes. Read More


Altcoin, a term derived from "alternative coin," refers to any cryptocurrency that is not Bitcoin. These altcoins were developed with the intention of improving upon or offering different functionalities and features compared to Bitcoin. While all altcoins fall under the broad category of cryptocurrencies, they distinguish themselves by offering various technological advancements, economic models, or use cases, ranging from enhanced transaction speeds and privacy features to programmability and smart contract capabilities. Examples of well-known altcoins include Ethereum (ETH), Tether (USDT), Ripple (XRP), Cardano (ADA) and several others.  Read More


 This is an acronym for “Ask Me Anything” sessions held by crypto experts for users to ask questions and learn more about the crypto space. AMA is a popular format of interactive sessions where experts in the cryptocurrency field engage with the community, allowing individuals to pose questions and gain insights directly from seasoned professionals. These sessions serve as an invaluable resource for newcomers and veterans in the crypto world, offering a platform to discuss trends, technologies, investment strategies, and the future outlook of digital currencies. Read More

Annual report

An annual report is a comprehensive documentation submitted by a company detailing the company’s performance in the preceding year. It often includes information such as a letter from the CEO, performance highlights, objectives and goals and financial reports. Additionally, the report highlights key performance indicators, achievements, and future goals, offering a clear snapshot of the company's financial health through detailed financial statements such as income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements.  Read More

Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

AML is a set of international laws to prevent and punish money laundering crimes through fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies.  AML measures require financial institutions and other regulated entities to implement stringent policies, including customer due diligence (CDD), Know Your Customer (KYC), transaction monitoring, and reporting suspicious activities to relevant authorities. These protocols aim to identify, assess, and manage the risks associated with money laundering and terrorist financing. AML efforts play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the international financial system, protecting it from being undermined by illicit money flows. Read More


API is an acronym for “Application Programming Interface”, which refers to a piece of code that allows applications to share information. It acts as a bridge between different software programs, enabling them to communicate with each other without the need for developers to share the entire codebase. APIs are crucial in today's digital world as they allow for the integration of third-party services, enhancing functionality and user experience. Read More


Arbitrage refers to taking advantage of price differences of the same currency, security, or commodity in two or more markets. For example, crypto prices on African exchanges can be different from US exchanges. An arbitrage trader would buy the asset at a lower price on one exchange and sell it at a higher price on another, making a profit from the price discrepancy. The goal is to exploit market inefficiencies and quickly capitalize on the variations in cryptocurrency prices between different trading platforms. Read More


Ashdraked is the total loss of a trader’s investment or capital resulting often from shorting of bitcoin. The phenomenon was named after a Romanian Bitcoin trader known by the pseudonym “Lord Ashdrake”. Read More


This stands for “Application Specific Integrated Circuit”, which is designed for a specific purpose like mining. An ASIC is a specialized computer chip designed for a specific task, like mining cryptocurrencies. In simple terms, it's a custom-built hardware that focuses on efficiently performing a particular job, such as solving complex mathematical problems to validate and secure transactions on a blockchain. In the context of cryptocurrency, ASICs are commonly used for mining, providing higher processing power and energy efficiency compared to general-purpose computers. Read More

ASIC Resistant

ASIC resistant refers to cryptocurrencies designed to prevent users from mining with ASIC. It is a design or algorithm of a blockchain that aims to prevent or discourage the use of specialized mining hardware known as Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). ASICs are highly efficient and powerful devices built specifically for mining certain cryptocurrencies, giving their owners a significant advantage over miners using standard computer hardware (CPUs or GPUs). Read More


Ask refers to the lowest price a seller is willing to sell an asset. It represents the minimum amount of money or another asset that someone is willing to accept when selling a cryptocurrency. Read More

Ask Price

The Ask Price is the lowest price in which a seller is willing to accept for the sale of an asset. It represents the minimum amount a seller is willing to accept when someone wants to buy a specific cryptocurrency. This price is part of the order book on a cryptocurrency exchange, where buyers can see the current asking prices from sellers. Read More

Asset Allocation

This is an investment strategy investors use to minimise losses by dividing their investment portfolio among different asset classes such as stocks, crypto, real estate, bonds, etc.  Proper asset allocation helps investors balance potential gains and losses, aiming to achieve a diversified and resilient portfolio. This approach is crucial for managing the inherent volatility in the cryptocurrency market and aligning with an investor's risk tolerance and financial goals. Read More

Atomic Swap

A direct exchange of one type of cryptocurrency for another on a different blockchain or off-chain, without centralized exchange as an intermediary.  It's called "atomic" because the swap either happens entirely or not at all, ensuring that both parties involved get their agreed-upon cryptocurrencies simultaneously or none at all. This process occurs through smart contracts, making it secure and trustless. Read More

Automated Market Maker (AMM)

AMM is an automated system that manages and provides liquidity to validators in a liquid pool. With AMMs, users can trade directly from their wallets without needing a centralized intermediary, and liquidity providers earn fees by depositing their assets into these pools. AMMs play a crucial role in decentralized finance (DeFi) by providing liquidity and facilitating automated and permissionless trading. Read More

Automatic Replay Protection

A protective mechanism implemented by Bitcoin Cash Developers to protect against replay attacks. A replay attack is when hackers intercept sensitive information and manipulate the information to steal funds. In essence, Automatic Replay Protection is a security feature that helps prevent accidental or malicious duplication of transactions across different networks or chains. Read More


Crypto slang for a large quantity of a specific cryptocurrency. Alternatively (but less frequently) used to refer to the contents of an individual's crypto portfolio Read More

Bag holder

An investor who continues to hold large amounts of a specific coin or token, regardless of its performance Read More


A crypto slang used to refer to an investor who continuously holds large quantities of cryptocurrencies regardless of their performance or price changes. Read More

Balance Sheet

A balance sheet is a financial statement detailing a company’s assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific period. Read More

Batch Auction

This refers to the accumulation of individual orders, which are grouped together and executed simultaneously. Read More


A person who expects the market to decline. Read More

Bear Market

This occurs when there is a prolonged decrease in the value of a cryptocurrency or asset.  Read More

Bear put spread

This is an options strategy an investor sets in place when there is an expected moderate-to-large decline in the price of an asset, and the investor wants to minimise the losses from holding the asset. Read More

Bear Trap

A trick played by crypto traders to manipulate the price of an asset so that it seems there is a price decline in order to make more profit. Read More


When the sentiments surrounding a cryptocurrency predict a price drop, it is said to be bearish. Read More


A person who holds a large quantity of cryptocurrencies and uses that power to drive down the price of cryptocurrencies to make more profit. Read More


Bid is the highest price a buyer will pay for an asset at any given time. Read More

Bid-Ask Spread

This refers to the difference between the highest price a buyer is willing to pay for an asset and the lowest price a seller is willing to accept for the sale of that asset. Read More


Bitcoin is the world's first peer to peer decentralised digital currency created in 2009 by an unknown person or group of persons known as Satoshi Nakamoto, it's also called a cryptocurrency for its use of cryptography to secure the network and make transactions pseudonymous, with bitcoin you don’t need to go through a bank, clearinghouse or third party of any kind use money. Read More

Bitcoin ATM

This is similar to the idea of a tradition ATM, but you can withdraw Bitcoin. Usually, Bitcoin ATMs have high fees for their convenience. Read More

Bitcoin Cash

Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency forked from Bitcoin. Bitcoin Cash offers a larger block size, which allows miners to process more transactions per block. Read More

Bitcoin Evangelist

Refers to a person who is passionate about bitcoin and is dedicated to spreading knowledge about bitcoin. Read More

Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP)

A design document for introducing new features to Bitcoin. Read More

Bitcoin Maximalist

Refers to a person who believes bitcoin is superior to other digital coins and it is the only cryptocurrency needed.  Read More


A business license issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services to firms in crypto-related activities. Read More


A subunit of one Bitcoin. 1,000,000 bits make up one Bitcoin. Read More


This is a single digital record created within a blockchain. Each block is a continuation of the previous block, carrying all the transactions earlier recorded, and when linked together these become a chain of blocks filled with information, blockchain. Read More

Block Confirmation

This refers to adding a transaction to a block of transactions for verification. Read More

Block Explorer

An online tool used to view transactions that have taken place on the blockchain. It provides detailed information on blocks, addresses, and transactions. Read More

Block Height

It refers to a block’s location in the blockchain, it is measured by how many blocks preceded it. For instance, a block with Height 0 represents the first block added to the blockchain.  Read More

Block Reward

When a bitcoin miner finds a block he receives newly minted bitcoins known as the block reward. The reward is halved every four years and is responsible for controlling bitcoin’s supply. Read More

Block Size Limit

This refers to the maximum number of data (transactions) that may be included in a block.  Read More


This is a string of ongoing digital records created within a distributed network. Each block is a continuation of the previous block, carrying all the transactions earlier recorded, and when linked together these become a chain of blocks filled with information, blockchain. Read More


A market condition in which assets are on a consistent price decline. Read More

Blue chip stock

A blue-chip stock refers to a huge company with a reputation for quality and reliability, has existed for an extended period and is known to thrive regardless of market conditions. Some of these companies may pay dividends to investors. Read More

Blue-sky laws

Blue-sky laws refer to a state's anti-fraud regulations that necessitate issuers of securities to be registered and disclose details of their offerings. It may vary from state to state, but it aims to protect investors from fraudulent sales practices. Read More

Bollinger Bands

A technical analysis indicator used by traders to measure price variations or volatility.  Read More


A bond is a promise by a borrower to pay back the principal and interest of a loan. The government or corporations usually issues it, and owners of bonds are debtholders or creditors of the issuer.   Read More

Bond market

A bond market is where investors trade (buy or sell) bonds. Read More

Book value

Book value refers to the accounting value of a company’s asset. It is the value a firm expects from selling its assets to cover liabilities.  Read More


Refers to trading bots that allow traders to automate buying and selling cryptocurrencies.  Read More


A reward given to users for performing certain tasks or actions in the crypto space. Read More


A broker is an intermediary between an investor and a securities exchange and helps the investors manage investment portfolios for a commission.  Read More


An acronym for “Buy The Dip”, a slang used to convince people to buy digital tokens when the prices have declined.  Read More


A bubble is when the price of an asset, such as housing, stocks, ​gold, or cryptocurrencies become over-inflated. Prices rise quickly over a short period. It's a bubble when investors bid up the price beyond any real sustainable value. Read More


An error, flaw or fault in a software program that prevents it from functioning accurately. Read More

Bug Bounty

A reward for finding an issue or vulnerability in a program's code. Crypto companies offer these rewards to help find exploits in their protocols, exchanges, and wallets. Read More

Bug Exploit

An attack that allows bugs to take control of a system through its vulnerabilities. Read More


A wrapped spelling of “build” similar to “hodl” that suggests building and contributing to the blockchain rather than holding crypto tokens idly in your wallet.  Read More


A person who believes the market will increase. This person would be “bullish” about the market. Read More

Bull call spread

This is an options strategy used by investors when there’s an expectation that the price of an asset will have a limited increase in price to maximise profits. Read More

Bull Market

A market condition in which prices of assets are rising or are expected to rise. Read More

Bull Trap

This occurs when a declining asset seems to increase in price only to decline once more. Read More


When the sentiments surrounding a cryptocurrency predict a price increase, it is said to be bullish. Read More


The process of making a coin or token unusable, essentially taking it out of circulation. Read More

Burned Tokens

Refers to digital tokens that have been permanently removed from circulation. Read More

Buy the F**king Dip (BFID)

An unsavoury slang used to convince people to buy a cryptocurrency when it dips. Read More

Buy-and-hold strategy

This is an investment strategy employed by investors in which an investor holds on to an asset with the expectation that the asset will gradually increase in value over an extended period.  Read More

Buy/Sell Tax

A tax on crypto transactions in which a certain percentage of the amount bought or sold is transferred to a set address.  Read More

Buy/Sell Wall

A large order placed by a crypto whale to buy or sell a certain crypto token when it reaches a particular price. Buy/ Sell walls prevent the price of a crypto token from dropping below a certain price and can be used to manipulate the price. Read More

Byzantine Fault

An error on a computer system, often a distributed computing system that its faculty component is not easily detectable.  Read More

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT)

A feature on a computer program that allows it to reach consensus even when some of its components are down. Read More

Byzantine Generals Problem

A term used to describe a circumstance in which a situation demands unanimous agreement from all members of a group that cannot be trusted or confirmed. Read More

Call feature

This refers to a clause in a bond agreement that allows the bond issuer to buy back the bonds at a set price within a fixed time frame. Read More

Call option

This is a feature in a contract between a buyer and seller that allows the buyer to purchase a specific stock at a fixed price until a pre-defined expiration date. Read More

Call options

Call options are financial contracts that give an option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to purchase a stock, bond, commodity or other asset at a specific Read More


A graph type that shows the change in price over time. Each candle shows the opening price, closing price, high, and low. This graph is also called as “candles”. Read More


An abbreviation for market capitalisation. Read More


Reference to the amount of funds an individual wishes to invest in an asset or financial scheme. Read More

Capital gain

This refers to the profit an investor makes from selling an asset such as crypto, stocks, bond, and real estate. Capital gain is when the asset's selling price is higher than the asset's cost price.  Read More

Capital gains tax

A capital gains tax is a levy issued on the profit an investor makes from the sale of an asset by the government.  Read More

Capital loss

An investor incurs capital loss when an asset has decreased in value and is sold for less than its purchase price.  Read More


A physical form of a currency, such as banknotes or coins. Read More

Cash flow statement

A cash flow statement is a report that details the amount of cash inflows and exits in a company.  Read More


Casper refers to the Ethereum Proof of Stake (PoS) Protocol that was designed to replace Proof of Work (PoW).  Read More


An acronym for “Central Bank Digital Currency” which refers to a digital currency issued by the central bank of a nation. Their value is pegged to the local currency. Read More

Central bank

A central bank is a monetary authority in a state that oversees the monetary policy and is responsible for issuing fiat currencies.  Read More

Central ledger

A ledger used in centralised entities to keep record of financial transactions. Read More


An organisation that only has a small number of nodes in one place is said to be centralised. This organisation is likely to hold a majority of its coin or token. Read More

Centralized Exchange (CEX)

A crypto exchange run in a centralised manner. Read More


A cryptography technique that is used to maintain confidentiality and security without the need for encryption over an unsecured network. Chaffing involves taking a group of authenticated message blocks (wheat) and inserting a bunch of chaff blocks with random contents and MAC fields. This means that the chaff blocks appear to an adversary to be as genuine as the wheat blocks, necessitating authentication on each block. The sender can make cracking the message computationally impossible by customising the number of chaff blocks sent to the transmission. This helps to protect against 51% attacks. Read More

Chain Link

Chain Link refers to decentralised computer nodes that provided much-needed data and information for blockchain smart contracts. Chain linking occurs when you transfer one cryptocurrency to another. Each cryptocurrency is lodged on its own blockchain and they must be linked in order to facilitate this transaction. Read More

Chain split

Chain split is another term for fork. Read More


An algorithm that encrypts and decrypts information. Read More

Circuit breaker

A circuit breaker is a temporary measure implemented to halt trading to reduce panic selling on stock exchanges. Read More

Circulating supply

This refers to the total amount of cryptocurrencies that can be traded or stored. Read More

Cloud Mining

Cryptocurrency mining which occurs with processing power loaned from companies. Read More


Refers to a single unit of a cryptocurrency. Read More

Coinless protocol

Coinless protocol is built on the Ethereum blockchain and runs on smart contracts. Its purpose is to ensure autonomous management and the incentives for complying with smart contracts are built into the protocol itself. Read More

Cold Storage

Cold storage is an offline wallet provided for storing cryptocurrencies. With cold storage, the digital wallet is stored on a platform that is not connected to the internet, thereby, protecting the wallet from unauthorised access, cyber hacks, and other vulnerabilities that a system connected to the internet is susceptible to. Read More

Cold Wallet

A cryptocurrency wallet linked to a cold storage. Read More

Collateralised Debt Obligation (CDO)

This refers to a financial product whose value is derived from underlying assets and is sold to institutional investors. Read More

Collateralised Stablecoin

A stablecoin pegged to collateral in a reserve. Read More


This refers to an item or collection of items that are considered valuable. Collectibles are considered valuable because of their uniqueness and can be sold for far more than their initial value. Read More

Commodity exchange

A commodity exchange is a registered entity wherein investors can trade (buy and sell) assets. A commodity exchange is also responsible for setting a standard of procedure for trading its investment products.   Read More

Common stock

Common stock refers to a stock representing ownership in a corporation, and shareholders can vote on the board of directors for the company.  Read More


This focuses on the interrelationship that exists between varying components of a system. Composability means that the components can be combined in varying techniques to meet certain needs.  Read More


This is a process carried out by miners to verify transactions on a cryptocurrency’s network to certify that a transaction is valid. This prevents double spending & can take some minutes to be completed. Read More


A transaction that has been confirmed or verified and is permanently added to the blockchain network. Read More


Consensus is achieved when active nodes agree on decisions that relate to the blockchain, which includes verification of blocks. Read More

Consensus mechanism

Consensus mechanism is a technology embedded in the blockchain that facilitates fair agreement or consensus between active nodes. Read More

Consensus process

In a consensus process the computer nodes responsible for validating a transaction work together to attain a solution. Read More

Consortium blockchain

Consortium blockchain is a hybrid blockchain that combines the features of private and public blockchains. In a consortium blockchain rather than just having a blockchain where anyone can validate a transaction or a particular party validating a transaction, a number of selected expert and powerful parties are entrusted with validation Read More

Corporate bond

A corporate bond refers to a bond (debt securities) issued by either public or private corporations to raise money for the corporation. Read More

Corporate governance

The process in which company management ensures corporate accountability to shareholders or investors is called corporate governance.  Read More

Correspondent banking

Correspondent banking occurs during cross-border payments. It is a relationship between two or more banks that allows a bank to provide financial services on behalf of another bank in a different country.  Read More

Coupon rate

The rate of interest paid by bond issuers to its bond buyers is referred to as a coupon rate. Unlike traditional loans, the bond issuer determines the coupon rate, not the purchaser.  Read More

Covered call

A covered call refers to the process involved in the sale of a call option of an owned stock.  Read More

Credit rating

A credit is a quantitative assessment of an individual or company's creditworthiness that indicates the ability to fulfil financial obligations.  Read More

Cross border

Cross border refers to the movement or activity that occurs between countries. Read More

Cross-border money transfer or payment

This is the transfer of funds from one country to another. Read More

Cross-border payment infrastructure or network

This refers to a system that supports or enables the cross-border transfer of funds between financial institutions. Read More

Crowd sale

A form of crowdfunding in which crypto tokens are sold to investors to raise funds for a crypto project. Read More


A fundraiser undertaken between several persons to fund a crypto project. Read More

Crypto Act of 2020

A bill introduced that defines the federal agencies that can regulate cryptocurrencies. Read More

Crypto Art

A digital art piece that is considered an original art piece because there is an option to attain verified ownership of the art piece. They are considered as collectibles that can be purchased with crypto assets.  Read More

Crypto Asset

An asset that undertakes crypto-related technologies in its operations. Read More

Crypto Bubble

A skeptical speculation that cryptocurrencies prices would soar very high and then come crashing down. Read More

Crypto Contagion

This is a phenomenon in the crypto space in which a negative event triggers a chain of reactions that causes a market downturn. Read More

Crypto Derivatives

This refers to an asset that draws its value from underlying assets. A buyer and seller place opposing predictions about the value of an asset and earn a profit from wagering (betting) on its future value. Read More

Crypto Economics

Crypto economics combines economics, computer science, and related sciences in studying the forces that impact the crypto market Read More

Crypto Kitty

Crypto kitty is a blockchain game that allows users to collect, sell and breed kitties using Ethereum. Read More

Crypto winter

A prolonged bear market in the cryptocurrency market is known as a Crypto winter, and it is defined by a sharp decline in cryptocurrency prices and a decline in market capitalisation. Read More


A digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography to secure and verify financial transactions. Read More

Cryptographic Hash Function

This process involves the inputation of data eg transactions which then produces a fixed-size output of enciphered text called a hash value, or just “hash.” Read More


This is an encryption technique used to secure data in transmission, data in storage, and user authentication that allows only those for whom it is intended to read, interpret or process to access. This is what cryptocurrency is built with and gets its name from. Read More


The act of using another person’s computer to mine cryptocurrencies without their permission. Read More


The study of cryptography which includes encrypting and deciphering information. Read More


A valuable asset used as a medium of exchange. Read More


The storage of private keys to an exchange or wallet are being held by a third-party service provider. Read More


A movement that promotes the adoption of cryptocurrencies and crypto related projects. Read More


An acronym for “Daily Active Addresses” refers to the number of addresses on a certain blockchain that meets the set activity requirement. It is a matric used in determining how active a blockchain is. Read More


Stands for “Decentralised Autonomous Organisation”, a system developed and governed by a set of rules to automate decision making and facilitate cryptocurrency transactions. Read More

Dark pool

A dark pool refers to a private trading exchange that is not easily accessible to investing public. Dark pools are created to facilitate large orders of investors whose market orders may have adverse price effects on assets.  Read More

Dark Web

A section of the internet that exists on the darknet and can only be accessed with special software and authorisations. Read More


Dash (formerly called Darkcoin) is a fast payment cryptocurrency that was built using a copy of the Bitcoin source code in 2014; however, some significant improvements have been made to it that make its major holders vote on network governance & use. Read More

Date of Launch

Refers to the time frame in which ICO tokens are launched and put up for sale. Read More

Day Trading

Buying and selling assets within a 24 hour benchmark to maximise profit. Read More

Dead Cat Bounce

A market indicator that shows short-term recovery amidst a declining market. The recovery is only temporary and the asset value continues to diminish after. Read More

Dead Coin

A digital token that is no longer viable. It is originally designed as a cryptocurrency but then fails. A coin website that has been inactive for more than 3 months or has less than $1000 worth of trade in three months is considered a dead coin. Read More


This is a form of organized system that has no central point of control or authority, the whole system exists and functions from individual parts that follow a set of rules mutually agreed upon. Read More

Decentralised Applications(dApps)

An application that runs on a decentralized network, this negates a single point of failure. Read More

Decentralised Autonomous Initial Coin Offerings (DAICO)

An initiative that comprises the benefits of DAO and ICO, which allows a form of governance in the ICO process. Read More

Decentralised Exchange(DEX)

A peer-to-peer crypto exchange in which no intermediary is involved. Read More

Decentralised Finance (DeFi)

A financial ecosystem that provides alternatives to traditional or centralized banking systems. It provides services such as banking, insurance, and loans among others. Read More

Decentralized Identifier

An ID issued by an autonomous decentralized entity as proof of ownership. Read More


The process of transforming encoded data back to a readable form. Read More


A decline in the general price and value of assets in an economy. Read More

Delegated Proof of Stake

A hybrid alternative to Proof of Stake and Proof of Work. Read More

Depth Chart

A depth chart is a marketing indicator that is used in observing the demand and supply of a digital asset to project the best time to sell or buy an asset. Read More


Derivatives are a financial contract or instrument between two parties whose value is determined by the performance of underlying assets. Underlying assets may include bonds, currencies, stocks, interest rates among others. Read More

Derivatives Market

The derivatives market is a financial market for financial products whose value is based on the prices of their underlying assets, such as futures contracts or options. Read More

Deterministic Wallet

A deterministic wallet is a system that uses a seed to generate keys. A user may quickly back up and restore their wallet using the seed. Read More


A limiter that cryptocurrencies use to keep the average times between blocks constant as the hashing power of the network changes. Read More

Digital Commodity

An asset that exists virtually and can only be transferred electronically. Read More

Digital Currency

This refers to digital or electronic money, that is exclusively online. Digital currency is not bound by borders and allows for instant transactions. Read More

Digital Gold

Bitcoin is often referred to as digital gold. This is based on the assumption that bitcoin has a store of value like gold. Read More

Digital Identity

Information that identifies a person or entity on the internet. Read More

Digital Signature

It appears as a code on the internet and it is used to confirm authenticity of information transmitted electronically. Read More

Direct stock plan

Direct stock plan is available in certain companies and allows investors to buy stocks directly from the company without using a commodity exchange. Read More

Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)

A method of restructuring data that is used as a consensus tool in cryptocurrencies. Read More

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A cyberattack in which the attacker directs a lot of traffic to the target server or network to overwhelm and prevent them from completing their normal services. Read More

Distributed Ledger

Digital data which is stored in nodes that are spread out across a network. Read More

Distributed Ledger Technology

This refers to the technological infrastructure that allows the blockchain to function and run a distributed ledger that cannot be modified or manipulated. Read More


An attempt to keep digital asset prices stable by selling coins in a systematic manner to avoid their collapsing, usually by crypto whales. Read More


A risk management strategy that involves spreading capital across various investment schemes. Read More


A dividend is a profit earned by shareholders for investing in a stock, and it can be paid as cash, shares or in any pre-defined form by the company. Read More

Dividend ex-date

This is also known as the ex-dividend date and ex-dividend. Stocks typically have an ex-dividend date set one business day before the record date. If you purchase a stock after its ex-dividend date, you will not receive the next dividend payments; instead, it will go to the seller.  Read More

Dividend payout ratio

A dividend payout ratio refers to the percentage of earnings paid to shareholders via dividends based on the company's net income.  Read More

Dividend reinvestment plan (DRIP/DIP)

A dividend investment plan is an automated plan offered by companies that allow investors to convert cash dividends to additional shares in the company automatically. Read More

Dividend yield

The dividend yield ratio measures the risk of investing in a company and is calculated as the ratio of the company's current dividend and its current share price. Investors usually aim for at least a 3 - 4% yield.  Read More

Dollar volume

Dollar volume is the total value traded in a stock exchange over a fixed time frame. It is calculated by multiplying the number of shares traded by the price. Read More

Dollar-cost averaging (DCA)

This is an investment strategy in which an investor invests a fixed amount of money in an asset over a certain period, regardless of price. Read More


A person with a moderate quantity of cryptocurrencies. Read More


This is a measure of Bitcoin’s marketing capitalization compared to the rest of the combined market capitalization of all other cryptos. Read More

Double Spending

A situation in which an individual tries to manipulate a crypto transaction in order to spend the same cryptocurrency twice. Read More


To sell off your cryptocurrency or when the marketing drops. Read More


This occurs when a significant market percentage sells-off cryptocurrencies within a short time frame. Read More

Dust Attack

A dusting attack is when a small amount of cryptocurrency, known as dust, is distributed to thousands of wallet addresses in an attempt to invade steal their information and defraud them. Read More

Dust Transaction

Dust transactions are cryptocurrency transactions involving a minute amount of crypto. When the value of a transaction is less than the cost of spending it, it's referred to as "dust." Read More

Dutch Auction

This is also known as uniform price action or descending auction is an action strategy in which the auctioneer starts at the highest possible bidding price and then gradually reduces it until the bids collected covers the whole offer amount. Read More


An acronym for “Do Your Own Research” Read More


An electronic signature or symbol used as an alternative to a physical signature. Read More

Earnings announcement

An earnings announcement is a public report shared by a company detailing its profit over a quarter or year. Read More

Earnings per share (EPS)

EPS is a financial metric indicating a company's profitability to investors. It is measured by dividing the company’s profits by its outstanding shares of its common stock. Read More


A token or coin earned by taking actions that contribute to energy conservation or sustainable energy. It can also be bought at a price. Read More

Email Spoofing

The act of disguising as another person or entity in an email with the aim of scamming a person. Read More


This refers to the speed at which new cryptocurrencies are released. Read More


A process through which information is made into codes. Read More

Entry and Exit Points

Entry points refers to the time in which you buy a cryptocurrency while exit points refers to the point in which you exit the market by selling of the cryptocurrency. Read More

Equal-weighted index

Each stock in a portfolio or index is given the same value under the equal-weight index metric. Therefore, when assessing the performance of stocks, the stocks of the smallest companies are assigned the same statistical importance, or weight, as those of the largest enterprises. Read More


This refers to the sum of money invested into a company or is owned by its owner. A company's equity is represented on its balance sheet by the difference between its liabilities and assets. Read More


An acronym for “Ethereum Request for Comments” is a compilation of all improvement proposals to Ethereum. Read More

ERC 1155

An EIP proposal to develop a smart contract interface that can represent and control a wide range of fungible and non-fungible tokens. Read More

ERC 721

This centers on setting a standard on ownership of non-fungible tokens. Read More


A token standard for the Ethereum blockchain, used for implementing tokens. ERC-20 has rules defining interactions between tokens, transfer between address and data access. Read More


A financial set up in which an intermediary holds funds while a transaction is being concluded between a seller and buyer. Read More


This refers to the Eastern Time zone in which stock market trading hours are recorded. It is speculated that stock trading hours are recorded in EST because that’s where New York’s Wall Street is located. Read More


The transactional token that enables transactions on the Ethereum network. Read More


Ethereum is an open-source, global, decentralised platform for money and new kinds of applications. Its cryptocurrency is used by applications built on Ethereum as platform fees to keep the applications running. Read More

Ethereum Improvement Proposal

A document that describes the standard for making modifications to the Ethereum network. Read More

Ethereum Name Service (ENS)

ENS is an Ethereum-based service that allows crypto users to convert their machine-readable addresses to human-readable addresses. This allows you to easily send cryptocurrencies via the much simpler names of receiver. Read More

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

A blockchain powered software that allows developers to build smart contracts or decentralized apps on the Ethereum network. Read More


Etherscan is a tool through which can view all assets on any Ethereum wallet. Read More


This is also known as trading exchange or trading platform where buyers & sellers of a particular commodity, asset or currency meet to transact business. For cryptocurrencies, this is where people buy or sell crypto coins for other crypto coins or fiat. Read More

Exchange rate

This refers to the rate or value at which one currency is exchanged for another. Read More

Exchange Traded Fund

A security setup that tracks assets, bonds, and stocks which can also be traded like an asset. Read More

Explain Like I'm Five (ELI5)

A crypto slang which emphasises breaking down concepts in a way that a five-year-old can understand. Read More

Externally Owned Accounts

It refers to an account controlled by a private key. Anyone who holds the private key can send and receive messages from it. Read More


A reward system initiated on a website or app that rewards users for completing certain tasks. It is an initiative used to attract participants after the creation of an altcoin. Read More

Fear and Greed Index

An index that is used to measure market sentiments of an asset. Extreme fear denotes that investors are worried and may sell-off assets while extreme greed may project more purchases out of FOMO. Read More

Federal Reserve Stocks

Federal Reserve Bank stocks are stocks owned by banks, not individuals. Federal Reserve Banks' stock is owned by banks, never by individuals. National banks are required by federal law to be Federal Reserve System members and to own a specific percentage of the Reserve Bank's shares in the Federal Reserve district where they are located. Read More


This is a currency belonging to a particular nation-state or group of nation-states that has no intrinsic value but is established as money by the government to be used for the payment of goods & services. Its acceptance by the public gives it value. Read More

Fiat Gateways

A payment system (crypto exchange) that allows you to use local currencies (fiat) to purchase cryptocurrencies. Read More

Fiat-pegged Cryptocurrency

It refers to a stablecoin that is pegged or backed up by a government issued currency or fiat currency such as dollars, pounds, naira among others. Read More


Stands for “First In, First out”, an inventory system used for calculating your taxes. Read More

Financial statements

These refer to legal documents detailing a business or individual's financial activities and performance. Read More


It refers to an individual with little or almost insignificant amount of cryptocurrencies whose actions to sell or buy may not reflect in any major price fluctuations, unlike the dolphins or whales. Read More


A popular slang coined to describe the moment in which litecoin surpasses Bitcoin Cash in market capitalisation. Read More

Flash Loans

A type of loan that requires no collateral, one of the initiatives of DeFi, decentralized finance. Read More


This occurs when a cryptocurrency’s total market cap surpasses another cryptocurrency. Read More


Flipping is a strategy that involves buying real estate assets with the aim of reselling in a short time frame to make the most profit. It may also be employed in ICO offerings, in which investors purchase tokens before they go public and sell it at an increased price immediately sales begin. Read More


Stands for "fear of missing out". Read More

Foreign exchange

This is an exchange or market where one currency is exchanged for another. Read More


This is when there is a split in a blockchain into two possible paths due to a protocol change. Read More


A trading environment with no restraints or costs on transactions. Read More


This is when a miner places a transaction on a queue because they have more information about a future transaction with the aim of earning a profit. Read More


Stands for "Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt." Read More


A person who spreads FUD with the hope of bringing down the value of a cryptocurrency to make the most profit. Read More

Full Node

A node that downloads a blockchain full history and checks blocks against Bitcoin’s consensus rules. Read More

Full Pay-Per-Share

This is also known as PPS+ refers to when a miner is paid an additional transaction fee incentive if a block is identified. Read More

Fundamental Analysis

A trading strategy that involves studying the intrinsic value of a cryptocurrency and its historical statistics to maximise profits. Read More


A coin or token that can be replaced by an identical coin or token is known as fungible. Read More


An agreement between two parties with a predetermined date and price that obligates them to transact in the future based on the contract.  Read More

Futures Contract

A legal binding document that obligates parties involved to either buy or sell an asset at a particular time at a predetermined price. Read More


This centres on the increase in value or price of a crypto asset. Read More


An industry that brings together gaming and crypto. Read More


A unit used to measure the computational effort of processing a transaction or smart contract in the Ethereum network. It “fuels” the Ethereum network. Read More

Gas Limit

The maximum gas a person is willing to spend on a transaction on the Ethereum blockchain. Read More

Gas Price

The maximum amount a user is willing to pay for a transaction on the Ethereum Network. Read More

GDP (Gross Domestic Product)

Gross domestic product is the total monetary value of all finished goods and services produced within a country within a defined time frame. Read More

Genesis Block

The first block of data that is processed and validated from a new blockchain, also called block 0 or block 1. Read More

Golden Cross

A market indicator that predicts the price rally of an asset. Read More

Governance Token

A token provided to participants on the network that provides them the power to vote on governance. It can be given as a reward incentive for completing some tasks or can be bought at a price. Read More

Graphical Processing Unit

It is commonly referred to as a graphics card or computer chip. GPU is a digital tool used to lighten the workload of processors during mining. Read More

Group Mining

Group mining is when a group of miners combine their mining power to increase their chances of validating a block. Read More

Growth investing

Growth investment is an investment strategy in which an investor buys stocks from companies anticipated to grow at an above-average rate compared to their broader industry market. Growth investors generally favour younger, smaller companies that have the potential to expand to increase profitability in the future. Read More


The denomination used to determine the cost of gas on an Ethereum Network, such as a gas price of 10,000 Gwei. Read More


The process of using a computer to forcefully gain access to another system. Read More


A situation in which the total reward a miner should receive per block is halved. Read More

Hard Cap

This refers to the total maximum supply of a crypto asset. Read More

Hard Fork

A cryptocurrency splits in two, creating a new blockchain that follows a different protocol. Bitcoin Cash is a hard fork of Bitcoin. Read More

Hardware Wallet

Cryptocurrencies are often stored on a virtual wallet. A hardware wallet allows you to store crypto on a physical medium such as a USB stick. Read More


An algorithm that maps data of arbitrary size to a bit string of a fixed size and is a one-way function. It can't be read without a cipher. Read More

Hash Function

A algorithm tool that is used to map data of arbitrary size and compress it to a fixed-sized value. Read More

Hash Graph

A distributed ledger system often described as an alternative to blockchains. Read More

Hash Rate

A measure of computational power required to process transactions on a Proof-of-work system. Read More

Hashing Power

Computational power (hash rate) of a system being measured in hash per second that is H/s, MH/s, GH/s, TH/s, PH/s or EH. H/s. Read More


A risk management strategy implemented to reduce loss associated with an investment.  Read More

High-frequency trading (HFT)

This investment method involves using powerful computer programs with complex algorithms to analyse and transact a large number of orders in fractions of a second to increase profitability. Read More


Stands for “Hold on for Dear life.” It suggests holding your cryptocurrencies for an extended period of time without the pressure of price changes. Read More

Honeypot Scam

In a honeypot scam, an attacker creates an illusion of a vulnerability in the system. While the user tries to exploit this vulnerability, the user's funds are locked in such that only the attacker has access to them. Read More

Hot Storage

Storing private keys online, which offer quick access to cryptocurrencies. This also comes with a higher risk. Read More

Hot Wallet

A crypto wallet connected to the internet to facilitate hot storage of cryptocurrencies. Read More

Hybrid PoS/PoW

This allows for Proof-of-Stake and Proof-of-Work to run on the same network. It combines the security of PoW and the energy efficiency of PoS. Read More


An opensource blockchain created to advance blockchain technologies. Read More


An acronym for “Initial Decentralised Offering” A decentralised and permissionless crowdfunding initiative similar to ICO. In contrast to an ICO, where tokens are sold before being posted on an exchange, tokens in an IDO are instantly listed on the DEX through which they are launched. Read More


A feature of an asset that marks it as difficult to change or modify. Read More

Impermanent Loss

A temporary loss that involves a trader losing some capital because of volatility in a trading pair. Read More

Implied volatility

Implied volatility refers to a market’s forecast about the possible price moves of an asset. Read More

Income investing

Income investing is an investment strategy that is centred around building a portfolio that generates a regular source of income. This income could be from stock dividends, rent from real estate, interest payments from loans etc. Read More

Income statement

This is one of the types of financial statements detailing a company’s financial performance over a specific period. Read More


The performance of a specific market, asset class, market sector, or investment strategy is represented and measured by an index, which is a collection of stocks, securities, or other financial instruments. An index uses a standardised metric and methodology to calculate the price performance of a group of assets. Read More


A decrease in the buying power of money and an increase in prices. Read More

Initial Bounty Offering

A financial scheme in which participants contribute their skills to a project rather than funds. Read More

Initial Coin Offering

This involves selling tokens with the intention of crowdfunding a project. Read More

Initial Exchange Offering

A crowdfunding scheme through which crypto start-ups generate funds through listing on an exchange. Read More

Initial Public Offering (IPO)

The process in which shares of a private corporation are offered to the public to raise capital for expanding the corporation. Read More

Initial Token Offering

It focuses on offering tokens which have its intrinsic value in the form of software or energy which are then offered on sale as a means of crowdfunding a project. Read More

Insider trading

This is a criminal and illegal practice of trading an asset on an exchange to one’s advantage through access to confidential information. Read More

Institutional Investors

This refers to persons or groups of persons that invest in assets on behalf of their clients or members. Read More


This is a monetary charge paid for borrowing money from a lender, otherwise known as the cost of borrowing money. Read More

Interest rate

This is the interest a lender charges a borrower, a percentage of the principal or amount loaned. Read More


This refers to a middleman or a go-to-person in a transaction between two other parties, a seller and buyer. Read More

International money transfer

This is a fund transfer across borders and often involves converting one currency to another. Read More

Internet of Things

A feature embedded in computing devices that allows devices to communicate and send data. Read More


This refers to the ability of distinct blockchain networks to share data, as well as move different digital assets between the networks' blockchains without restriction. Read More

InterPlanetary File System

A peer-to-peer and protocol network designed for storing and transmitting data on a distributed file system. Read More

Intrinsic value

This refers to the fundamental value contained in an asset or object. Read More


Setting aside money in a financial scheme or project with the aim of making profit. Read More

Iron condor

Iron condor is an investment strategy aiming to profit from the low volatility of an asset and uses an options strategy of setting long and short puts and calls for a trade. Read More


Stands for ‘joy of missing out’. Read More

Junk bond

A junk bond is a risky type of bond investment that has been given a low credit rating and is considered to rank below the investment grade. Read More

Kimchi Premium

The token price differences between global crypto exchanges and South Korean exchanges. Read More


“Know your customer”, the obligation of the financial company to verify the identity of the customer. Read More


An abbreviation of “Lamborgini” which is used to describe a significant price increase that allows a person get rich quickly; rich enough to buy exotic cars. Read More


This is a (digital) record book of all transactions on a cryptocurrency network, also known as the blockchain. The records are updated in real-time & show a history of all transactions from the day of inception to present making verification of data easy. Read More


This refers to funds loaned from crypto exchanges to increase a trader’s trading power. Read More

Light Node

Light nodes refer to downloaded wallets connected to a full node to help in the validation of transactions on a blockchain. Read More

Lightning Network

Layer two payment protocols on top of the blockchain. Its goal is to solve Bitcoin scalability issues by enabling faster, scalable transactions between and across nodes. Read More

Limit Order/Limit Buy/Limit Sell

An order placed by a trader to automatically buy or sell a token when it reaches a particular price. Read More

Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS)

A proof of stake system that allows investors to loan their validation rights without losing ownership of the token. Read More


An indication of how easily cryptocurrency can be bought and sold. Read More

Liquidity Pools

These are created to provide consistent liquidity in a market by enabling the trade of trading pairs on a decentralized exchange. Read More

Liquidity Provider

This refers to active participants on a decentralized exchange platform that provide funds to fund a liquidity pool. Read More

Lock Time

Also known as timelock, is a timestamp that determines when a transaction sent to the blockchain can be processed. Read More

Long/ Long Position

A trading strategy in which you purchase cryptocurrencies with the expectation that the value would increase so you can sell for a higher profit in future. Read More


An acronym for “Moving Average Convergence Difference”, a technical analysis tool used for observing price trends. Read More


A blockchain that is running on its own technology and protocol. Read More

Margin account

A margin account is a specific kind of brokerage account where the broker-dealer lends the investor money to buy assets while using the account as collateral.  Read More

Margin Bear Position

A position taken with the assumption that the prices will decline with expectations of profit from the bearish market. Read More

Margin Bull Position

A position taken with the assumption that the prices will rice with expectations of profit from the bullish market. Read More

Margin Call

A notification from an exchange which loaned leverage informing a trader that their position is running at a loss. The trader may be asked to either provide more collateral or the account would be closed and liquidated. Read More

Margin rate

A margin rate is the interest rate applied to an account trading on margin. Read More

Margin Trading

It refers to a trading strategy that helps increase a trader's trading capital by taking a loan from an exchange. Read More


A gathering of people in an area, either physical or virtual, where trades and similar transactions are completed. Read More

Market Buy / Market Sell

This is an order to buy or sell a cryptocurrency at the best available price. Read More

Market cap/ capitalisation

This refers to the total value of a company’s shares of stock. It is calculated by multiplying the price of a stock by the total amount of outstanding shares. Read More

Market Capitalization

This is calculated by multiplying the total amount of coins of a cryptocurrency in circulation and its price. It is also used to rank cryptocurrencies. Read More

Market index

A hypothetical portfolio representing a specific financial market area is known as a market index. A market index tracks the performance of a specific collection of assets, such as the Nasdaq or S&P 500. Read More

Market Maker

A market maker, also known as a liquidity provider, quotes both a purchase and a selling price for an asset with the hopes of profiting from the bid-ask spread. Read More

Market Order

A type of limit order that specifies the time at which a trade should be executed. Read More

Market sentiment

This is the investors' overall attitude or feeling towards an asset revealed based on the asset's price movements. A bullish market sentiment indicates rising prices of an asset as demand increases. Read More

Market Signal

This refers to an indication or information passed across passively or intentionally among traders in a given market. Read More

Market Taker

A market taker is an individual who completes the market order by accepting to either buy or sell from existing orders. Read More

Market trend

This refers to the price direction of an asset over a given period. Read More

Market value

Also known as open market valuation (OPV), is the price an asset would fetch in the marketplace when it is put up for sale. Read More

Market-cap-weighted index

Also known as the capitalisation weighted index (cap-weighted index CWI), is a stock market index in which companies with a larger market capitalisation carry more significance than companies with smaller market capitalisation. Read More

Marlin Protocol

High-performance network infrastructure for modern decentralized networks. Read More


A series of computer systems that are used to process and validate transactions. Read More

Maturity date

This refers to the set date when the final payment or profit is due for a loan, bond or stock. Read More

Max Supply

The total amount of coins of a cryptocurrency that would exist in a lifetime. Read More


This refers to a coin that has humorous characteristics or originated from an internet meme. Read More


An abbreviation of “memory pool” which refers to a database that contains pending or unconfirmed transactions. Read More


This refers to the deployment of Ethereum's execution layer (the existing Ethereum network) to the "consensus layer" of Ethereum's forthcoming proof-of-stake blockchain, the Beacon chain. Read More

Merkle Tree

This is also known as the hash tree, refers to a data structure which is used to encrypt data securely. It has its leaves labelled with the cryptographic hash of a data block. Its non-leaf nodes are labelled with the cryptographic hash of its child nodes' labels Read More


A cryptocurrency wallet that allows you to interact on the Ethereum Network and participate in DeFi projects. Read More


The metaverse is a virtual reality world where users can interact, play games, and have real-life experiences. Read More

MicroBitcoin (uBTC)

It is sometimes referred to as a fork of bitcoin however, it is the millionth fraction of bitcoin. One microbitcoin equals 100 satoshi Read More


Tiny payments that are made in exchange for digital products or services. An example would be purchasing something in a video game, which could be in-game currency or upgrades. Read More


An Harry Potter spell that prevents you from exposing secrets. In the crypto space, it is a protocol that allows for a completely private transaction through a unique security network. There are no addresses and the transactions are purely confidential. Read More


A cryptocurrency with mining systems that miners can profit from Read More


An individual or group of persons who use computational power and skills to confirm and verify transactions on the blockchain. They earn a reward for their contribution to the blockchain. Read More

Miner Fee

This is also called transaction fees, users of a cryptocurrency who send out coins on the cryptocurrency blockchain/network pay small amounts of their coins to miners whose work is to verify the authenticity of transactions on the network and are paid according to the size of value being sent. Read More


Using GPU power to solve PoW equations that add blocks to the blockchain and verify transactions. Read More

Mining Contract

A mining initiative in which the hashing power of a mining hardware is loaned out for a certain amount of time. It may also be referred to as cloud mining. Read More

Mining Pool

Grouping together computational power to gain an advantage in finding the next block on the blockchain. Read More

Mining Reward (Block Reward)

The reward received from contributing your computation power to process transactions. Read More

Mining Rig

A computer used for mining. It is usually composed use multiple GPUs to get the highest hash rate. Read More

Mnemonic Phrase

A phrase or list of words used to access and recover cryptocurrency assets. Read More


A learning technique or memory aid that helps to aid retention and retrieval of information. Read More

Mobile Wallet

A virtual wallet that operates on a mobile device, stores payment information, and can be used to complete transactions. Read More

Money Laundering

An evasive strategy employed by criminals to hide their funds from the government. Read More

Money Services Business (MSB)

This refers to an entity that transfers or converts money. Read More


A crypto slang used to describe continuous upward price movement of a cryptocurrency. Read More

Mt. Gox

One of the first exchanges to allow the purchase of cryptocurrencies with traditional or local currencies (fiat). Read More


More than one key is required to authorise a transaction, that way if a single key is compromised one or more keys are still required to approve the transaction. Read More

Municipal bond

A municipal bond is a type of bond (debt security) issued by a local or state government. Read More

Mutual fund

A mutual fund is a pool of assets, e.g. stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments, which is managed by a professional for shareholders to maximise profits. Read More

Naked call

When an investor writes (sells) a call option without first securing ownership of the underlying stock, this option strategy is known as a naked call. Read More


Nasdaq was the world’s first electronic exchange for trading (buying or selling) assets. Read More


All active nodes of a blockchain at any time. Read More


This describes an individual who is new to a particular industry or just started participating in an activity. Such an individual may also be referred to as a beginner or novice. Read More


A person who has strong convictions that cryptocurrencies would fail and holds no cryptocurrencies. Read More


It refers to a device or system connected to a network. Read More


The users directly hold their private keys to their wallets. Read More

Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

This refers to tokens that cannot be duplicated or replicated. Read More

Non-voting stock

Non-voting stock or shares refer to stocks that provide shareholders little or no votes in matters relating to company governance. Read More


An abbreviation for, Number Only Used Once”, refers to a randomly generated number during mining that is encrypted in the blockchain. It is generated as part of an authentication mechanism to prevent replay attacks on previous Read More


An individual who is new and doesn’t have much experience in an industry. Read More


NYSE is the largest equities-based exchange in the world. Equity shares of publicly traded corporations can be bought and sold on the NYSE. Read More


An acronym for “One Cancels the Other Order “. which refers to a situation in which two crypto orders are placed at the same time, with the restriction that if one is approved, the other is canceled Read More


This refers to transactions that occur within a cryptocurrency network that move the value out of the blockchain. Off-chain transactions have lower costs, faster settlement times, and more anonymity than on-chain transactions. Read More

Offline Staking

This is also known as cold staking, refers to staking conducted with a cold wallet that is without access to the internet. Read More

Offline Storage

Storing cryptocurrency on a device that is not connected to the internet. Read More

On-chain Governance

A system for making modifications and managing cryptocurrency networks without compromising their security. Read More

Online Storage

The storage of cryptocurrencies in a device or wallet that is connected to the internet. Read More

Open Source

The open-source model is a decentralized software development style in which the source code is available to the general public for use, audit & modification from its original design free of charge. Read More


Open refers to a cryptocurrency’s price at the start of the day, while close is the cryptocurrency’s price at the end of the day. Read More


Option is an agreement between two parties that allows them to buy or sell a stock at a fixed price within a specified time frame. The price is referred to as a strike price or exercise price. Read More

Option chain

Also known as option matrix, it is a detailed representation of all available option contracts of an asset. Read More

Option premium

The current market value of an option contract is known as an option premium. It is the money that the seller (writer) of an option contract receives from the opposite side. Read More

Option spread

This is an options investment strategy in which an investor buys and sells multiple options of the same type but with varying expiring dates or strike prices. Read More


An option is a contract that provides the investor the right to buy or sell a specified asset at a specific price on or before a specific expiration date. Read More


Oracle is a service that connects the blockchain to the real world. It connects smart contracts to the outside world, allowing them to both receive and send information. Read More

Order Book

An order book is an electronic record of all the buy and sell orders of an asset on an exchange. Read More

Orphan Block

This refers to a block not included in the main blockchain due to a network time lag. Read More

Over the Counter (OTC)

Over the counter trading is an activity done directly between two parties without using a regular exchange. Read More


Overbought refers to a situation in which the price of a cryptocurrency rises over time as a result of continued investments, but there is no supporting investment reason. Numerous sell-offs are expected after this period. Read More


This is when the price of an asset, is trading below its true value. Read More

P/E ratio

Also known as earning multiple, it is a metric used to determine if a stock is expensive or cheap. It is the ratio of a share price of a stock to its earning per share. Read More


The trade or exchange of one cryptocurrency for another. Read More

Paper wallet

A paper wallet is an offline mechanism for storing cryptocurrency. The process involves printing the private keys and Bitcoin addresses onto paper. Whatever can happen to cash can happen to a paper wallet so safekeeping is advised. Read More

Password Manager

A software application or tool that helps you manage passwords for different applications and software. Read More

Pay-Per-Last N Shares (PPLNS)

When a block is found, each miner's reward is determined based on the miner's contribution to the previous N pool shares. Read More

Pay-Per-Share (PPS)

This means a miner receives a standard payout rate for each share solved. Read More

Payment gateway

This is an online payment service that allows merchants to receive electronic payments from customers. Read More

Payment service provider or operator

This refers to a firm or entity that manages a payment system and offers payment processing services to merchants. Read More


A fixed price or exchange rate between two assets. Read More

Penny stock

This is the stock of a small company which typically trades for less than $5 per share. Read More

Permissioned Blockchain

A blockchain that is not publicly accessible and can only be accessed by users with permissions who can only perform specific actions granted to them by the central administrators of the blockchain. Read More

Permissionless ledger

A blockchain that is publicly accessible such that anyone can access it without any restrictions. Read More


A fraudulent cybercrime in which an attacker disguises as a trusted entity to steal your information through emails, SMS, social media platforms. Read More


This is also referred to as bitcoin pizza is the first known purchase of a physical item with crypto (bitcoin). Read More

Ponzi scheme

A fraudulent investment scheme in which the investments of an individual is used to pay existing investors. Read More


A collection of cryptocurrencies held by an individual or a fund. Read More


Also known as an investment portfolio, it is the entire collection of financial investments, which includes assets such as real estate, crypto, stocks, bonds, commodities etc. Read More

Position trader

A position trader is an investor who holds a specific asset position for an extended period. Read More

Position trading

A trading strategy in which a trader holds a position for an extended time. Read More


A presale is when a particular ICO token is available for sale to private investors or community members before it is sold in the ICO. Read More

Preferred stock

This is a hybrid type of stock that possesses the features of both stock and bonds. Investors earn profits through their scheduled payments of dividends but do not have voting rights. Read More

Price volatility

This refers to the price fluctuations of an asset.  Read More

Price-weighted index

This is a stock index in which the proportion of each firm's share price in the overall index is based on the company's stock per share. Read More


This refers to the original amount loaned or the initial capital invested. Read More


The speed at which your transaction will be included in a block. The higher the priority the faster the transfer. Read More

Privacy Coins

Privacy coins are cryptocurrencies designed to maintain the anonymity of a transaction and the parties involved. Read More

Private Blockchain

Private blockchains are permissioned blockchains in which only select individuals can see and make modifications to the blockchain. Read More

Private Key

A code generated from the encryption process, which can be paired with the public key to decrypt information. Read More

Proof of Burn (PoB)

A consensus algorithm focused on managing energy consumption. It achieves this by rewarding miners for burning tokens.  Read More

Proof of Developer (PoD)

A consensus algorithm that identifies the developer as a means to provide legitimacy and prevents an imposter developer from receiving unmerited rewards.   Read More

Proof of Stake(PoS)

A blockchain consensus mechanism in which the creator of the next block is chosen by various variables. Read More

Proof of Work(PoW)

A blockchain consensus mechanism that involves solving computational intensive equations to validate transactions and create new blocks. Read More


A consensus algorithm that uses identity as a stake in validating transactions and running the blockchain network. Read More


This is a formal document demanded by the SEC that provides details of an investment offering or asset to the public. Read More


A rule set that defines interactions on a network. Read More

Proxy statement

This is a formal document sent to shareholders informing them about a shareholders’ meeting and the purpose and agendas to be voted upon. Read More

Proxy voting

This allows shareholders to vote for matters affecting the company without being present by transferring voting rights. Read More


A false name used to identify a person. Read More

Public Address

A cryptographic hash of a public key, this address allows you to receive cryptocurrency. Read More

Public Blockchain

A blockchain network that can be accessed by anyone from a computer system. Read More

Public float

Also known as free float, it represents the portion of shares of a company owned by public investors as opposed to the locked-in shares owned by owners, controlling interest investors with governance power. Read More

Public Key

A cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: the public key which can be circulated widely and private key which is only known by the owner. Read More

Public Ledger

A ledger in which anyone can access or view every transaction ever made on the blockchain network. Read More

Pump and Dump (P&D) Scheme

A fraudulent scheme that involves the artificial inflation of the price of a cryptocurrency, which the intention of selling the once low priced currency at a higher amount. Read More

Put feature

This feature or option in a contract allows the holder of the asset to sell some equity shares at the strike price before the option expires. Read More

Pyramid Scheme

A fraudulent scheme that undertakes a hierarchical structure and pays the top tier members with funds from new members. Read More

QR Code

A label that shows information encoded into a graphical black and white patter. It is often used to share wallet addresses. Read More

Quantum proof

A blockchain that is resistant to quantum computer attacks. This is based on the perception that cryptocurrencies are vulnerable to quantum computers, which are believed to break through cryptography codes much faster than traditional computers. Read More

Quarterly report

This report is sent every three months detailing a company’s activities, performance and financial statement. Read More


To provide an estimated value or price for an asset. Read More


The position a crypto asset holds by value of its market capitalization. Read More


A hacking attempt to infect computers and encrypts files, holding them hostage until the owner pays to regain access. Read More

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)

A business that owns, manages, or finances income-producing real estate is known as a real estate investment trust (REIT). A REIT is a business entity that invests directly in real estate by purchasing homes or mortgages. Read More


Rebalancing is the process of changing an asset allocation in a portfolio to bring it back in line with the initial allocation determined by an investor's risk and reward profile. Read More

Reddit r/CryptoCurrency Moon

A cryptocurrency on social media platform Reddit that rewards people for contributing to its digital token. Read More


A set of rules implemented by an authority or government that guides an activity. Read More

Regulatory Compliance

A set of rules that a company is required to follow to monitor accountability. Read More


A crypto slang for “wrecked” that represents a bad trade. Read More

Relative Strength Index (RSI)

A trading tool that is used to measure the price movement of a crypto asset to determine the strength of its market. Read More


This involves sending funds across borders from one country to the next and usually involves a foreign worker sending money to their home country. Read More

Replay Attack

This is also known as playback attack or repeat attack, is a network attack in which valid data transmission is intercepted and delayed to mislead the receiver into doing what the hacker wants. Read More

Rights issue

This is a unique invitation extended to existing shareholders in a company to purchase additional new shares at a special price. Read More

Ring Signature

A signature in a cryptographic set up, which a set of participants that have access to unique keys can create. It is used to obscure the identities of participants in a transaction. Read More

Risk management

These are the intentional measures taken to minimise investment risks. Read More

Risk tolerance

This is the degree of risk or uncertainty accepted by a person before they can invest in an asset. Read More


“ Return on Investment”, the ratio between the net profit and cost of investing. Read More

Rug Pull

A deceptive cryptocurrency scheme in which crypto developers abandon a project (removing liquidity) and disappear with the funds of investors. This causes a sharp price drop, resulting in huge losses for investors. Read More

S&P 500

The Standard and Poor's 500, popularly known as the S&P 500, is an index used to measure the performance of 500 of the biggest firms listed on American stock markets. Read More


An acronym for “Secured Automated Lending Technology”, which provides borrowers with loans using cryptocurrencies as collateral. It could also refer to a random input that is introduced to a password or a passphrase to make the hash unique and prevent it from being decoded easily by a hacker. Read More


A satoshi is the smallest unit of a bitcoin. It is equal to one hundred millionth of a bitcoin, or .00000001 BTC. A satoshi are to Bitcoin what cents are to the dollar. Read More

Satoshi Nakamoto

An individual or group of individuals that are responsible for creating Bitcoin. The identity of Satoshi Nakamoto has never been confirmed. Read More


An abbreviation of satoshi, the smallest unit of bitcoin. Read More


The capacity of a system to process more tasks, increase performance while reducing the cost of doing so Read More

Scalability Limitation

It refers to the limitation of a blockchain that limits the speed of its transactions and the quantity of transactions it can process in a time frame. Read More

Scalability Solution

A proposed solution with the aim of solving the scalability limitations of a blockchain network. Read More


This refers to a trading strategy that involves buying and selling a digital token numerous times on the same day within short durations in order to profit from slight price swings throughout that period. Read More


A cryptocurrency that is known to be deceptive or fraudulent. Read More


A person who participates in a fraudulent scheme to steal people’s funds or crypto assets. Read More


Scrypt is a password-based key derivation mechanism that uses a lot of memory in order to make large-scale hardware attacks more expensive. Read More

Second-Layer Solutions

A secondary network built on top of a public blockchain to improve its scalability and efficiency. Read More

Secondary offering

When an investor sells their shares to the general public on the secondary market following an initial public offering (IPO), this is known as a secondary offering. The proceeds from the sale go to the investor rather than the company. Read More

Secure Asset Fund for Users (SAFU)

An emergency fund set aside by Binance to protect users' assets against theft or a catastrophic event.  Read More

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

An independent agency of the government that oversees federal securities laws and is responsible for proposing laws, implementing regulations, and protecting the market against manipulation. Read More

Security Token

A security token is a unique code that allows you to access an electronically restricted resource. Read More

Security Token Offering

A security token is a one-of-a-kind token that represents a stake in an external asset or organization and is issued on a permissioned or permissionless blockchain. Read More


A list of random words which store all the information needed to recover a Bitcoin wallet. Read More

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

A Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) that is geared towards solving bitcoin scalability problems. Read More

Selfish Mining

Selfish mining is a dishonest cryptocurrency mining practice in which a single miner or a group solves a hash, creates a new block and conceals it from the public blockchain. The other miners continue to waste computing resources on an old block, allowing the selfish miner to get a head start on the newer block. Read More

Sell Offs

A sell-off occurs when a large volume of assets are sold in a brief span of time, causing the asset's price to decline rapidly. It is motivated by bearish market sentiment. Read More


Sharding splits a blockchain company's entire network into smaller segments known as "shards," with each shard handling transaction processing. Sharding is used to relieve pressure on other components such as the CPU or GPU, allowing more computational power to be dedicated to solving cryptographic puzzles and reaching consensus. Read More


Shares are assets that represent part ownership of a company and can be bought and sold in exchange for money. Read More


A shareholder is anyone who holds stocks or shares in a company. Read More

Shareholder meeting

Also known as Annual General Meeting or AGM, it is a gathering of the company's shareholders for business discussions or to elect the board of directors. Read More


Actively and enthusiastically promoting a cryptocurrency. Read More


The term crypto traders give to some coins which they perceive to be of little or no value. Read More


A trading technique in which a trader sells an asset with the expectation that it would decline in price so he can make a purchase when it drops and sell for a higher price later. Read More

Short interest

This indicates the number of shares in a company currently sold short and not yet covered. Read More

Short selling

When engaging in short selling, a position is created by obtaining shares of a stock or other asset that the investor anticipates will lose value. Read More

Short squeeze

The phrase "short squeeze" describes a phenomenon in the financial markets where traders who have previously sold an asset short are compelled to close out their positions due to a sudden increase in the asset's price. The intense buying pressure effectively "squeezes" out short sellers from the market. Read More


A sidechain is a blockchain network that is connected to the main chain through a two-way peg. It runs alongside the main chain and allows assets to be transferred between the two. Read More


An indicator that informs traders on whether they should buy or sell an asset. Read More

Sim Swapping

This is also known as sim swap attack, is an attack that attempts to gain access to your mobile device and locks you out in an attempt to gain access to your accounts and defraud you. Read More

Smart Contract

A software protocol intended to digitally facilitate, verify, or enforce the negotiation or performance of a contract. Smart contracts allow the performance of credible transactions without third parties. These transactions are trackable and supposedly irreversible. Read More

Soft cap

The lowest amount of funds that can be raised for a project, usually determined by the project's management. Read More

Soft Fork

A software upgrade, similar to updating an app on a mobile device that occurs on the blockchain. It renders previous transactions invalid and miners may have to upgrade their software to continue the mining process. Read More

Software Development Kit (SDK)

A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of software development tools in one easy-to-install package. They aid application development by providing a software framework. Read More

Software Wallet

A computer program that allows you access to your cryptocurrencies and helps to secure its transactions. Read More


Solidity is a programming language used in creating smart contracts. It is used to build smart contracts on a variety of blockchain systems, the most popular of which is Ethereum. Read More

Solo Staker

A Qtum (quantum) Proof-of-Stake miner staking their own currency. Read More


Special purpose acquisition companies (SPACs): SPAC, also known as a blank check company, is a corporation that has no commercial activity and was formed only for the goal of generating funds through an initial public offering (IPO). Read More


A software that infiltrates your system to steal sensitive information. Read More


A stablecoin is a type of cryptocurrency that has a fixed price with the intention of offering stability to those who want little to no volatility while dealing with cryptocurrencies. They are often backed by a reserve asset like the USD or gold. Read More


A number of crypto funds set aside as collateral. Read More


Staking is the process of locking in your crypto assets so that they can be used for proof-of-stake validation. Read More

Stale Block

A successful block that was not included on the current longest blockchain, usually because another block of the same height was added to the chain first. They are referred to as double-mined blocks and aren't part of the blockchain. Read More

State Channel

A state channel is an auxiliary payment channel that lets people conduct transactions with one another outside of the blockchain, or "off-chain." Read More


This is an investment that represents fractional ownership in an organisation. Read More

Stock buyback

When a publicly traded firm uses funds to buy shares of its own stock on the open market, it is known as a stock buyback. Read More

Stock dividend

This is a dividend payment to shareholders as additional shares rather than cash. Read More

Stock exchange

A stock exchange is a centralised location where the shares of publicly traded companies are bought and sold. Read More

Stock market time

This is the time frame in which the stock market is open from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m EST Read More

Stock split

This is when a company increases the number of its outstanding shares by issuing more shares to its current shareholders. Read More

Stop-limit order

A stop-limit order combines the characteristics of a stop order with a limit order when placing a purchase or sell order for a stock. A stop-limit order turns into a limit order when the stop price is reached and is executed at the specified price (or better). Read More

Stop-loss Order/ Stop Order

The stop-loss order is a type of limit order designed to protect traders from losses by selling when the asset's price falls below a certain level.  Read More

Store of Value

A feature of an asset that allows it to be stored, exchanged and retrieved. Read More

Strike price

Also known as exercise price, this is the set price of an option in which the put or call option can be exercised. Read More

Super Staker

A full node Qtum Core wallet that provides Proof of Stake for assigned addresses while keeping a small portion of each block reward as a charge for providing staking services. Read More

Swing trading

This trading strategy seeks to benefit from short to medium-term price swings while trading assets. Read More


A distinct mark or character used to identify an item, function, or activity. Read More


Tangle is a cryptocurrency transaction system that works similarly to Blockchain. It makes use of a directed acyclic graph (DAG) and is also not under the control of a central authority. Read More

Technical Analysis

A trading method or strategy that allows a trader to forecast the price movement of an asset by studying the past market trends. Read More


The testnet is an alternative blockchain, to be used for testing software upgrades & improvement protocols to work out errors & bugs before being moved to the main blockchain. Read More

Think Long Term (TLT)

An investment mindset that convinces you to store an asset for an extended time frame (months or years) to maximise profit. Read More

Ticker/ Ticker symbol

A ticker is a string of letters that is used to represent an asset, stocks, DeFi solutions, cryptocurrencies on an exchange platform. E.g Bitcoin’s ticker symbol is BTC. Read More

Time decay

Also called theta, it is the measure of the value of an asset or the rate of its decline in value as the option’s contract draws to its expiry date. Read More

Time Lock

Also referred to as Locktime, a feature that determines the time frame in which a transaction should be processed. Read More


A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred, usually giving date and time of day. Entries in decentralized ledgers are timestamped. Read More


This is created it for its utility of providing access to a larger crypto economic system. They are made so the software can be developed around them. Read More

Token Generation Event (TGE)

A Token Generation Event (TGE) is the process of creating a token on a blockchain-based network and launching it into the market, usually through a public sale, private sale, or initial coin offering (ICO). TGE is often used to gain visibility, increase crypto participation, and raise funds. Read More

Token sale

The process of raising funding for a blockchain project by selling digital tokens or coins before the project is live to generate revenue. Read More

Token Swap

This refers to the direct exchange of a token for another. It could also refer to the migration of a token to another blockchain. Read More


The process of giving digital value to real assets for the purpose of offering ownership. Read More

Tokenless Ledger

A type of distributed ledger that does not require a native currency to operate, also known as "pure" or "transaction-only" blockchain. Read More


A combination of the word “token” and ‘economic”. It centers on the economic features or benefits of a token that makes it attractive to investors. It also explains the sentiments around a token that could affect its monetary value. Read More


An open-source decentralized software that anonymizes a user’s web activities such that it is difficult to track. It may also refer to the acronym for "Terms of Reference", which defines the purpose of a project, its protocols, and the means to achieve it. Read More

Total supply

The total amount of cryptocurrencies in existence with the exceptions of cryptocurrencies that have been burned. Read More

Total value locked (TVL)

The overall value of crypto assets placed (staked) in a decentralized finance (DeFi) protocol is referred to as total value locked (TVL). It is calculated by dividing the total value of coins locked in a master node by the number of master nodes in existence at the time. It is a metric for calculating the health of a DeFi protocol. Read More


An acronym for “Transactions Per Second”, that is the total amount of transactions completed per second. Read More

Trading Tournament

A trading campaign employed by crypto exchanges to encourage traders to trade more to earn a reward. Read More

Trading Volume

The number of cryptocurrencies traded within 24 hours Read More

Trailing stop order

A trailing stop is an order made to lock in gains or reduce losses while a transaction performs well. Read More

Transaction (TX)

The exchange of an asset. Read More

Transaction Fee

This is also called miners’ fees, users of a cryptocurrency who send out coins on the cryptocurrency blockchain/network pay small amounts of their coins to miners whose work is to verify the authenticity of transactions on the network and are paid according to the size of value being sent. Read More

Transaction Fee Market

It is a strategy that allows non-validators/miners who nevertheless want their transactions completed promptly to voluntarily boost fees as an incentive for miners to prioritize them over others on a blockchain network. Read More

Transaction ID (TXID)

Every cryptocurrency transaction comes with a transaction ID the same way every bank transaction comes with a transaction ID. This ID is a unique string of letters & numbers that makes a transaction trackable on the blockchain of the cryptocurrency. Read More

Transaction Malleability

Transaction malleability is the process of altering a transaction's unique id by altering the digital signature that was used to generate it. Read More

Transaction Malleability Attack

It's a dubious exploit that allows an attacker to modify a bitcoin transaction's unique ID before it's confirmed on the network. If the attacker is able to successfully pull this off,  the alteration allows someone to pretend that a transaction never took place. Read More

Transaction Pool

This is also known as a mempool, is a data structure that stores the set of unmined transactions that have been validated by miners. Read More

Treasury bonds

These are bonds (debt securities) issued by the government. Read More


This is a system of distributing trust among different actors in a system via an economic game that incentivizes participants in the system to cooperate with the rules defined by the protocol. The Bitcoin blockchain is an example. Read More

Turing Completeness

T uring completeness refers to a machine's ability to do all possible programmable calculations. It is a data manipulation system that can read programming languages and complex databases utilising a small collection of data, most commonly the Turing machine. Read More

Turing Machine

A system that helps with solving problems and the calculation of data systems that are difficult for the human mind to understand. Read More

Two Factor Authentications (2FA)

A digital security measure that necessitates a user to provide two proofs of identity before they can access a website or application. Read More


This refers to a group of people that do not have access to banking service or choose not to because of certain limitations. Read More


This is when a transaction hasn’t been verified on the blockchain by miners. Read More


A grouping of people who have limited access to banking services. Read More

Unpermissioned Ledger

A digital record-keeping software that anyone can download, run and add entries into it according to the preset rules to achieve consensus without license or restriction from a central source. Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO): UTXO represents the amount of digital currency left after a crypto transaction has been completed. They are the coins in the wallet that haven't been spent yet. Read More

UTC Time

This is referred to as "Coordinated Universal Time," which is the standard through which time in the world is regulated. Read More

Utility Token

A token purchased with the expectation that it would offer the buyers certain privileges to consumer products. Read More


A participant who takes part in the validation of blocks on the Proof-of-Stake Consensus Algorithms. Read More

Value Investing

This is an investment strategy that involves buying stocks that seem to be trading less than their intrinsic value with the expectation they will rise in profits. Read More


A product that is announced to the public, but is never actually created. Read More

Variable Buy/Sell Tax

A non-fixed buy/sell tax that permits contract owners to adjust the tax rate at will. Read More

Venture Capital

A form of private equity provided to fund start-ups with the potential of growth. Read More

Virgin Bitcoin

This refers to bitcoins that have never been spent. Read More

Virtual Automated Market Makers (vAMMs)

vAMM is a programmable smart contract that provides synthetic (or virtual) liquidity to traders, allowing them to purchase and sell derivatives completely on the blockchain. They help to maintain the market liquidity when there aren't any active buyers or sellers. Read More

Vitalik Buterin

Co-founder of Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency. Read More

Volatile market

A market that is characterised by sharp price fluctuations either bearish or bullish that makes it difficult to predict the direction in which the market will move. Read More


This represents the extent of an asset's price swing around its mean price and is used as a measure of the risk of an investment. Read More

Volatility Index

The Cboe Volatility Index (VIX) portrays the market expectations for the relative strength of near-term price changes of the S&P 500 index. Read More


The amount of cryptocurrency that has been traded over a period of time, the supply and demand play a role in determining this. Read More

Voting rights

These are rights gained by shareholders that allow them to vote on matters of the company. Read More


A software system that stores a user’s information, transaction details and funds. Read More

Wallet Address

This is also known as a public key, is a unique string of numbers and characters that are used to send you cryptocurrency. Read More

Wallet Seed Phrase

A seed phrase is a string of words generated by your wallet and used to gain access to the crypto linked with it. The seed phrase is similar to a password or private pin. Read More

Wash Trade

A market manipulation strategy that involves purchasing and selling assets through different identities to create false activity in the market. Read More


A watchlist is a feature of some exchanges that allow users to create a personal list of cryptocurrencies they wish to observe their activity. Read More

Weak Hands

A trader who has the tendency to sell an asset at slightest inclination of a price decline. Read More

Web3 Wallet

A digital wallet that allows users to store digital assets such as NFTs, and interact with dApps. Read More


A set of web pages with related contents under a domain name registered to an individual or entity. Read More


The smallest denomination of Ethereum. 1 Eth = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Wei. Read More


An investor who has a large amount of crypto, enough to manipulate the market. Read More

Whale Watching

Whale-watching is the act of tracking the activities of major crypto holders to see when they make significant trade moves that could affect price fluctuations. Read More

When Lambo

A crypto slang referring to a time frame in which crypto traders would get rich enough to purchase a Lamborghini. It is often used along with the phrase “When Moon” suggesting a time in which cryptocurrencies would explode in value. Read More

When Moon

An expression used by investors to ask when the price of an asset or crypto-token will skyrocket. Read More


A list of participants who indicate interest in participating in an Initial Coin Offering (ICO). Read More


A document prepared for investors that outlines the vision, cryptocurrency use, cryptoeconomic design, technical information, and a roadmap. Read More

X86 virtual machine

X86 Virtual Machine enables Qtum developers to write smart contracts in a language of their choice Read More


A univalent radical. Read More

Yellow Pay

This is a payment product of Yellow Card that allows you to send money across Africa in your local currency instant and at zero fees. Read More


Yield, which is calculated as a percentage, represents the return on an investment over a specified time period. Read More

Yield curve

The yield curve is a line that plots the relationship between yields and maturities of fixed income securities Read More

Yield Farming

Yield farming involves the practice of staking or lending your crypto funds to generate profit. Read More


Year to Date. Read More

Zero Confirmation Transaction

Another name for an unconfirmed transaction. Read More

Zero confirmation/unconfirmed transaction

A zero confirmation or unconfirmed transaction is defined as an exchange that has not yet been recorded or verified on the blockchain Read More

Zero-Knowledge Proof/ Protocol

A means of proving to another party in cryptography that a particular statement is true without providing extra information beyond that which is already known. Read More

Zero-Knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive Argument of Knowledge (Zk-SNARKs)

Zk-SNARKS refers to a form of zero-knowledge proof that requires no direct interaction or additional information between the prover and the verifier. Read More

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